Colour Processes - Antique and Vintage Cameras

Crystoleum

Image of Crystoleum

Portrait of a woman, 5 " x 4 ".

A Crystoleum comprises a print stuck to a curved glass, the back of the print is rubbed away and oil applied making the print transparent. Fine detail is then applied in oil colours to the back of the print. A second similarly shaped glass is attached to the back but with a small separation. On the second glass broad areas of colour are applied. Finally a card is stuck to the back and all the components are bound together.

References & Notes:
BJA 1907, p. 923. YBP 1888, p. 183. Cyclopedia of Photography, p. 154.

Kromogram

Photochromoscope Syndicate Ltd.

London

England

Image of Kromogram

  • No. 4 - Apple Blossoms.
  • No. 16 - Grocery Set.
  • No. 36 - Regent's Park Flower Beds.
In Kromogram box.

Notes:
Address: Holbein House, 121 Shaftesbury Av.

Kromograms are for use with the Kromskop viewer developed by Frederic E. Ives in 1895. A Kromogram comprises three monochrome transparencies printed from three-colour separation negatives which are taped together. The order being red image, blue image, green image with a label and caption between the red and blue images. They were produced for both stereo and mono viewers.

The Kromskop was one of the earliest commercial applications of colour photography; as well as the Kromogram images, viewers and projectors were sold by the Photochromoscope Syndicate. Repeating backs and accessories were available enabling photographers to produce their own Kromograms. The Photochromoscope Syndicate was founded in 1898.

There are alternative spellings for 'Kromskop', the 1895 British patent uses Photochromoscope and Chromogram for the image.

References & Notes:
Coote, History of Colour Photography, p. 29. Coe, Colour Photography, p. 39. BP 2305/1895, 3784/1895 describe the Kromskop viewer.

Joly Process

Image of Joly Process

Flowers in a vase. 3" x 3" image mounted in wooden frame 7" x 4 ".

The Joly process was the first screen-plate process, it was introduced commercially around 1895 but without much success due mainly to the lack of fully panchromatic plates and the width of the lines ruled on the screen. It was a separate screen process; different screens were used for exposing and viewing the image, the exposing screen having a slightly wider bandwidth.

Outline of the process
The exposure was made on an orthochromatic plate in contact with the colour screen, with the screen nearest the camera lens (light was filtered by the screen before reaching the emulsion). A yellow filter was used to cut out ultra-violet light. The plate and screen were separated and the plate developed in the normal way. A contact copy was then made to produce a positive image. The positive was viewed in contact with a viewing screen.

Manufacture
The screen was produced by ruling parallel lines of red, green and blue-violet aniline dye mixed with gum on a gelatine-coated plate, there were 200 lines per inch.

Patents
The 1894 patent describes the process and gives details such as the ink that might be used in making the screen. Joly describes a parallax problem with oblique rays when making the exposure and when viewing the finished transparency, he suggests that a microscopic gap may be left between the ruled lines. The patent is non-specific in parts and mentions alternative patterns for the screen and the possibility of a dusting-on process using coloured particles. The second patent describes the ruling machine.

The image on the right shows the colour screen, taken with a microscope magnification of 48x.

References & Notes:
BP 14161/1894. BP 17900/1897. Bolas, Phot. in Colours, p. 80. BJA 1899, p. 143. Newman & Guardia advertisement.

Autochrome

Four 6 x 13 cm stereo Autochrome plates.

  • 'Girl in a Pram', dated 23.5.17.
  • 'Woodland Avenue (Thoresby)' d. 17.10.24.
  • 'Group of People at Picnic', d. 2.10.25.
  • Untitled, d.7.3.26.
In Autochrome box.

Notes:
Exceptional images.

Autochrome

Sixteen 3 " x 4 " Autochrome plates by Herbert Young. Outdoor subjects including: Kew Gardens, London, Mountains. With five other damaged plates. c. 1910s.

Autochrome

Image of Autochrome

Twelve, 6 x 13 cm stereo Autochrome slides of flowers and gardens by F. Low F.R.P.S. some dated 1912. With monochrome slide of the same subject as an Autochrome slide.

Autochrome

  • A 6 x 13 cm stereo Autochrome plate. Captioned 'Near Fussen', (Bavaria).
  • Two Autochrome lantern slides. Poor images.
  • 6 x 13 cm stereo plate, coastal subject.
  • Lecture slide set. Comprising: An Autochrome screen i.e. a plate without emulsion, Autochrome negative, undeveloped Autochrome plate, ordinary undeveloped plate. Lantern plate size. Dated 1910. These were produced to accompany a lecture on the process.


The Autochrome plate was an additive transparency process. Introduced in 1907 it remained on sale until around 1933. For further information see Autochrome.

The image on the right shows the colour screen, taken with a microscope magnification of 48x.

References & Notes:
Autochrome.

Agfa Farbenplatten

Six lantern slides.

With:
Box with Agfa Farbenplatten label.

Agfa Farbenplatten was an additive combined screen process with an irregular pattern of dots. They were similar to Autochromes but had no gaps between the dots. The plates were used in a similar way to Autochrome, development was by the reversal method. An orange filter was used at the taking stage.

The plates were developed during the First World War in Germany and introduced in Britain in 1924. According to Friedman the process is based on the patents of J. H. Christensen, E. J. Wall notes that there is a difference between early plates and those sold following the war. The process remained available until replaced by Agfacolor Neu in the mid 1930s.

Both British patents (listed below) cover the production of the mosaic screen, in particular the formation of the coloured particles by emulsifying one (coloured) liquid in another. The first patent mentions emulsifying shellac (or similar) solutions, dyed red, green and blue, in separate solutions of turpentine. The emulsion grains are drawn off mixed together and poured on a plate coated in lac, the plate is then warmed and subjected to pressure. The second patent notes improvements to the process that results in particles of a more uniform size, it mentions dextrine (or similar) as the coloured solution emulsified in gum dammar. After emulsification the gum dammar is removed by repeated dilution in turpentine and then benzine.

References & Notes:
BP 20971/1908. BP 21097/1908. BJA 1924, p. 384. Friedman, History of Colour Photography, p. 151. Wall, Three-Color Photography, p. 578.

Dioptichrome

Six lantern slides, one by A.W.M. Dickins. Poor images.

Based on the patents of Louis Dufay, the Dioptichrome process was introduced in 1909 as a separate screen process. During exposure the screen and plate were held in a spring-mounted frame. The same screen was used for taking and viewing. Development was by the reversal method. The following year a combined screen process was introduced.

The image on the right shows the colour screen, taken with a microscope magnification of 48x. The solid vertical bars should be yellow the squares making up the rest of the pattern should be red and blue, i.e. alternating red and blue bars with overlaying yellow bars.

References & Notes:
BJA 1909, p. 643. Coe, Colour Photography, p. 57. Coote, History of Colour Photography, p. 47.

Paget

Image of Paget

Thirteen lantern slides, one by A.W.M. Dickins. Very good images including some of London.

This is a colour process using a regular pattern screen developed by George Sydney Whitfield of Paget. A separate screen is used allowing the negative to be processed in the normal way and for the transparency to be made by contact printing. A different screen, with modified colours, was used for viewing the transparency. The process was introduced in 1913, re-introduced following World War I and discontinued around 1925. From 1925 the old-established firm of C. Baker in Holborn advertised a very similar process. The process had a speed of around 15 Watkins, F24 Wynne.

The method of producing the screen was patented in 1908, other related aspects such as the use of a registration device on the screen and the production of prints were also patented.1

The colour screen consisted of red, green and blue squares with twice as many blue squares as red or green. J.H. Pledge measured the squares as being, on average, 1/400 inch for the side of the blue square and 1/300 inch for the green and red squares.2

For a short period around 1914 a combined plate version was sold as was a process for producing paper prints.

In use a panchromatic plate is exposed behind the Taking Screen. After development a positive plate is made, by contact printing, which is viewed in register with the Viewing Screen. Special plates were sold by Paget for the negative and positive plates. A light filter was used over the lens when making the original exposure.

The image on the right shows the colour screen, taken with a microscope magnification of 48x.

References & Notes:
BP 9044/1908. BJA 1913, pp. 706, 1258. BJA 1914, pp. 705, 1262. BJA 1920, pp. 500, 640. BJA 1922, p. 73. Coe, Colour Photography, p. 61.

[1] BP 5144/1912, 18900/1912, 24566/1913.

[2] BJA 1914, p. 705.

Dufaycolour Films

  • Fourteen 1 ⅝" x 2 " films. Outdoor scenes including Kew Gardens.
  • Eighty films. Outdoor subjects mainly in the lake District. Dated from 1940 - 1957. With three later tripack films.

    The majority of the images are very good. mostly landscape but some architectural and town scenes.

  • Six, 2 " x 3 " films in black card mounts contained in Dufaycolour envelope. Dufay marked the mounts with a letter indicating a problem with the transparency e.g. O for overexposed. Most of these mounts are marked in that way. Poor images. Address: Dufay-Chromex Ltd, Elstree.
  • Thirty films, lantern slide size, some dated 1938. Outdoor subjects, Sussex. Good images.
  • Six films, lantern slide size. Outdoor subjects including Barbados.

Dufaycolour films were introduced for still photography around 1935 and for cine use a few years earlier. It was an additive combined screen process with a regular screen pattern. Dufaycolour was comparatively easy to use and so proved popular, it remained on sale until the late 1950s. This process was developed from the earlier Dufay Dioptichrome process.

The image on the right shows the colour screen, taken with a microscope magnification of 48x.

References & Notes:
BP 11698/1908. BP 18744/1908. Spencer, Colour Photography in Practice, p. 203. Coote, History of Colour Photography, p. 47. Coe, Colour Photography, p. 72.

Agfacolor Neu

  • Roll of 35 mm film, 39 exposures. In tin labelled Agfacolor Patrone dated June 1940. South West England.
  • Roll of 35 mm film, 39 exposures. In tin labelled Agfacolor Patrone dated May 1940. The images include rowing eights, a modern caption identifies the river as the Ouse.
  • 35 mm film in two section of 18 and 15 frames. Plymouth area of England.

Agfacolor was an integral tripack process introduced in 1936.

Sanger-Shepherd Process

Sanger-Shepherd & Co. Ltd

London

England

Image of Sanger-Shepherd Process

  • 1 ⅞" x 1 ⅞" image mounted as a lantern slide. The subject is a bowl of fruit. In box.
  • Two lantern slides, outdoor subjects.

Notes:
Address: 5, 6 & 7 Gray's Inn Passage, Red Lion Sq.

This was a subtractive printing process, introduced around 1900, for the production of lantern slides and transparencies. Colour separation negatives were produced in the normal way through red, green and blue filters. The negative taken with the red filter was printed on to a photographic plate and chemically converted to a blue/green colour. The green and blue negatives were printed on to bichromated gelatine, containing silver bromide, coated on a celluloid base. The negative being in contact with the celluloid. These were developed in warm water to remove the unhardened gelatine and then dyed in the complimentary colour to the filter used at the negative stage (the image from the green negative was dyed magenta, that from the blue negative was dyed yellow). The three images were then superimposed and bound together, Canada Balsam was sometimes used between the layers.

The Sanger-Shepherd company sold all of the equipment and supplies required for both the printing process and to produce three-colour separation negatives.

References & Notes:
BJA 1901, 1317. BJA 1905, p. 1320.

Three-Colour Separation Negatives

Image of Three-Colour Separation Negatives

Ten, 9 " x 4 " plates containing three 3 " x 4 " images. Images labelled: - Blue + Yellow, - Green + Pink, - Red + Blue. The images are of paintings. In a plate storage box by Arundel & Marshall. c. 1900.

Notes:
Address on box: Penn St. Works, Hoxton, London. BP 11615/1886

References & Notes:
BP 11615/1886 (Plate Storage Box).

Three-Colour Separation Prints

Three 3 " x 4 " monochrome prints labelled R, B and Yellow. The subject is a photograph surrounded by colour and density strips.

Colour Photography

Eleven lantern slides relating to colour photography. Including portraits of pioneers in colour photography and colour processes. Black and white images.


Company Details:

Sanger-Shepherd

Images

Silhouette

Daguerreotype

Ambrotype

Tintype

Calotype & Salt Prints

Cartes de Visite

Cabinet & Studio Mounts

Carte de Visite Album

Stereo Cards and Diapositives

Prints

'Hold to Light' Photographs

Panoramas

Colour Processes

  Crystoleum

  Kromogram

  Joly

  Autochrome

  Agfa Farbenplatten

  Dioptichrome

  Paget

  Dufaycolour

  Agfacolor

  Sanger-Shepherd

  Three-Colour

Albums

Illustrated Books

Novelty Photographs

Photomechanical

Lantern Slides

Film Strips

Wet-plate Negatives

Dry-plate Negatives