T-P T&I - Antique and Vintage Cameras

Time & Instantaneous

Thornton-Pickard Manufacturing Co.

Altrincham

England

Image of Time & Instantaneous

Shutter Type:
Roller-blind, single blind. Spring powered, tension varies exposure.

Attributes:
Speeds 1/90 - 1/15, T. Ratchet speed indicator. 1 " opening. Behind the lens fitting.

Identification:
Ornate script on name plaque.

Serial Number:
30575O .

With:
On panel with lens flange. Red/yellow box.

Late Model

Shutter Type:
Roller-blind, single blind. Spring powered, tension varies exposure.

Attributes:
Speeds 1/90 - 1/15, T. Ratchet speed indicator. 3 ⅛" opening. Front of lens fitting.

Identification:
Ornate script on name plaque.

Serial Number:
84117 .

With:
Rubber lens grip, leather case.

Early Model

Shutter Type:
Roller-blind, single blind. Spring powered, tension varies exposure.

Attributes:
Speeds 1/70 - 1/12, T. Disc speed indicator. 2 ⅝" opening. Front of lens fitting.

Identification:
Plain script on name plaque.

Serial Number:
X07724 .

With:
Rubber lens grip. Grey box.

Model with capping flap

Image of

Shutter Type:
Roller-blind, single blind. Spring powered, tension varies exposure.

Attributes:
Speeds 1/80 - 1/15, T. 2" opening. Front of lens fitting. Additional manually operated flap with spring retainer.

Identification:
Plain script on name plaque.

Serial Number:
79473 .

Notes:
This model has a capping flap attached to the front to allow the shutter to be set whilst the draw-slide of the dark-slide or changing box is open. Although not listed in catalogues a second example is known.

With:
Rubber lens grip.

Aluminium Model

1898

Shutter Type:
Roller-blind, single blind. Spring powered, tension varies exposure.

Attributes:
Speeds 1/90 - 1/15, T. 1 ⅝" opening. Front of lens fitting. Aluminium casing.

Serial Number:
Q48314 .

Late model

Shutter Type:
Roller-blind, single blind. Spring powered, tension varies exposure.

Attributes:
Speeds 1/90 - 1/15, T. 1 ⅝" opening. Front of lens fitting.

Identification:
Ivory name plaque, thick finger joints, setting wheel projections on separate ring. Red lacquer finish. Ornate script on name plaque.

Serial Number:
R59127 .

With:
Rubber lens grip.

Late model

Shutter Type:
Roller-blind, single blind. Spring powered, tension varies exposure.

Attributes:
Speeds 1/90 - 1/15, T. 1 " opening. Front of lens fitting.

Identification:
Transfer name plaque, thick finger joints, setting wheel projections on separate ring. Finish is a high gloss lacquer. Ornate script on name plaque.

Serial Number:
D44311 .

With:
Rubber lens grip.

The 'Time & Instantaneous' was a development of the 'Time' which it replaced.

It consists of a single blind with an aperture in it. Pulling a cord draws up the blind, a cog wheel at the top of the shutter is caused to rotate and locks against the release arm when set. The shutter is released by lifting the release arm, either by pneumatic bulb of finger.

At the bottom of the shutter is a knob to tension the spring. Optionally a ratchet wheel would indicate the speed that has been set. If this was not fitted then an ivory disc showed the approximate speed for the number of turns of the tensioning knob. Later models always had the ratchet indicator.

The shutter was fitted either on the front of the lens or behind the lens. Several sizes were made up to a lens opening of 5", a rubber grip was used for intermediate sizes.

An aluminium model was produced in the smaller sizes in 1898. This was optionally fitted with the speed indicator.

T-P Roller-Blind shutters

Shutter Models

TimeT and I settings. Cog wheel on upper roller. Single blind.1887 - 1892
InstantaneousI setting only. Without cog wheel. Single blind.c. 1889 - c. 1892
Time & InstantaneousT and I settings. Cog wheel on upper roller. Single blind.1892 -
StereoscopicMade in 'Time' and 'T&I' versions.1887 -
ForegroundT and I settings. 'Two blinds'. Gave more exposure to the foreground.
Probably a single blind wrapped around the bottom roller.
c. 1889 -
SpecialI setting only, speeds up to 1/200. 'Two blinds'. Without cog wheel.
Probably a single blind with cut-outs wrapped around a roller.
c. 1890 -
Extra RapidT and I settings, speeds up to 1/130. 'Two blinds'.
Probably a single blind with cut-outs wrapped around a roller.
c. 1889 -
Snap ShotI setting only. Without cog wheel. Single blind. Replaced 'Instantaneous'.c. 1890 -
Safety Snap ShotAs for Snap Shot but with capping blind.c. 1891 -
RoyalAs for T&I but fully enclosed in case.c. 1903 -
StudioB setting only for use with a bulb release.
Only advertised for a short time.
c. 1890
Studio, 2nd versionB setting only. Two blinds. Without setting cord.1894 -

The shutter is normally tensioned by pulling a cord at the bottom of the shutter, this turns the upper roller. On the end of the roller is a pinion that operates a cog-type setting wheel on the outside of the case which was held by the release arm. On some models, such as the Snap-shot, there was no cog wheel, the upper roller turned a disc with indentations which were engaged by the release arm.

Variations

These mainly apply to the Time and T&I models.

Setting Wheel
On the very early Time shutter the setting wheel was rotated by a knob attached to the upper roller. In 1889 a setting cord and internal pulley were introduced. The setting wheel contains two small projections, which can be held by the release lever, the first provides a focusing position, the other engages when the shutter is fully wound. A third projection is raised slightly and engages the release arm when set to Time (actually a B setting). Originally these projections were part of the setting wheel, later they were on a separate disc and screwed to the setting wheel.

In 1903 the setting cord was optionally made retractable after setting.

Release Arm
The early release arm was attached at the bottom of the shutter, around 1890 it was attached at the top. In 1892 it gained a flat projecting piece that gave a better fitting for the rubber release bulb.

The image above far right shows a model fitted with a straight release arm, the middle image shows the modified release arm with projecting piece, the last image shows a late setting wheel.

Speed indicator
The speed was either shown on a small ivorine disc which showed the speed for a particular number of turns of the tensioning knob or a ratchet device showed the speed as the tensioning knob was rotated. A pawl is normally fitted, this may not have been present on the very earliest examples.

Joints and Finish
The earliest shutters used simple half-lap joints at the corners of the casing, this was later changed to fine finger joints, later still (c. 1914 - 1918) the finger joints became much thicker.

The polish on the wood becomes noticeably red around 1914/1918 and later has a very high gloss. The brass parts on late examples are also more highly polished prior to being lacquered.

The image on the far right shows the fine finger joints, the second image shows the later thick finger joints and a transfer name plaque.

Name Plaque
According to Holliday the first name plaques were rectangular and on the front of the shutter. In 1890 the familiar round ivorine disc was used, also on the front of the shutter. Probably in 1893 the disc was inlaid on the top edge of the shutter. The simple script that had been used for the company name was later replaced by an ornate script. Around the First World War period (after the change to thick finger joints) a round transfer replaced the ivorine disc.

Position
At first the shutter fitted to the lens hood, from around 1891 a behind-the-lens model was available. In 1894 a Combined Lens and Shutter had the shutter operating between the lens. This model had a safety blind fitted and was made in aluminium. The Special could also be fitted between the lens elements.

Safety Blind
This was available as an option from 1891, early forms comprised a separate box having a second roller-blind screwed to the front of a normal shutter with the two cords were joined at their ends. In 1893 the safety blind fitted inside the normal shutter case. The setting cord now retracted after setting.

Accessories

Rubber lens grips were introduced around 1890.

A Regulating Fan was available from 1890 giving exposure down to second. It fitted along the top of the shutter and impeded rotation of the roller.

A Time valve fitting in the pneumatic release tube was available in 1898 giving exposures down to 3 seconds.

In 1904 a 'Compressor' was available for use with the Time valve, it comprised a metal wedge that fitted around the pneumatic release to standardise the volume of air pushed into the Time valve..

References & Notes:
BP 12238/1886. BP 511/1890. BP 12976/1894. BP 1924/1895. BP 3240/1898. BP 22207/1903. BP 23670/1903. BP 20330/1904. BJA 1888, p. 683. BJA 1890, pp. 132, 824. BJA 1892, pp. 749, 955. BJA 1893, p. 279. BJA 1899, pp. 913, 1242. BJA 1900, p. 1224. BJA 1902, p. 1254. BJA 1904, p. 1287. BJA 1905, p. 1263. PA 1891, pp. clxxi, 450. YBP 1888. YBP 1889, p. ciii. YBP 1891, p. cii. YBP 1895. The following roller-blind patents are by J.E. Thornton but were not made use of: BP 17516/1891, 12528/1898, 6628/1899, 10933/1899; 11600/1899, 5522/1904. The following roller-blind patents are by T-P but were not made use of: BP 27962/1903, 20327/1904, 20800/1905, 405/1906, 17358/1906, 6785/1907.
The best source of information on T-P shutters is Holliday, Thornton-Pickard Cameras & Equipment.

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