Company Details

Notes on companies mentioned in the main text together with a few early manufacturers and dealers.


Company Name

H. Dale & Co.1888 - 1890
H & E.J. Dale1882 - 1888

Company Address

26 Ludgate Hill, London EC1882 - 1890
4 Little Britain, London1882 - c. 1887
9 Kirby St., London- c. 1889

H & E.J. Dale carried on the business of F.J. Cox at the old address of 26 Ludgate Hill, the BJA advertisement for 1884 says the business is managed by C.D. Smith and that they have their own works, probably Kirby Street. The partnership between the two brothers was ended on 16th July 1888. Previously Henry Dale was in partnership with Thomas Philip Christopher Crampton trading as Dale & Crampton. H & E.J. Dale are described as opticians, electricians, and manufacturers of photographic and scientific instruments. Dale & Crampton had a similar line of business though not including photographic apparatus.

The Era magazine includes an obituary of E.J. Dale, it states that in his youth he was working for F.J. Cox. He left Cox to pursue a career on the stage as an illusionist and conjurer in this capacity he toured and performed in the United Sates. He then formed the partnership with his brother Henry and took over the old business of F.J. Cox. This lasted until 1888 when he resumed his career associated with the theatre. The Era states that he worked at one time for R.W. Paul exhibiting films, John Barnes states that in 1897 he was exhibiting at the Crystal Palace using the Animatoscope. As well as performing he manufactured illusion and conjuring equipment.

H. Dale & Co. must have ended when Henry Dale was imprisoned in 1889 for embezzlement.

The 26 Ludgate Hill address was occupied by Price, Talbot & Co. in 1890 and then Price & Co. from 1891, both described as camera manufacturers.

Electrical Review 16/11/1882, p. 477. Lon. Gaz. 3/12/1880, p. 6572. Lon. Gaz. 24/7/1888, p. 4028. The Era, 5 May 1900. Barnes, Beginnings of the Cinema in England Vol. II.

Further Information:
  • Henry James Dale
  • Born: 1847 Malden
  • Spouse: Caroline
  • 1881: Electrician Optical Master employing 8 men and 3 boys. This was at the end of the Dale & Crampton period which was dissolved on 30 Sep. 1880, the company was at 4 Little Britain. The family were living at 328 Holloway Rd.
  • 1889: Imprisoned for 9 months (from 21 Oct. 1889) for embezzlement from H. Dale & Co Ltd
  • 1891: Living in Hammersmith

  • Edward Jonathan Dale
  • Born: 1852
  • Spouse: Mary Jane, divorced 1888
  • Died: 1900 Scotland
  • 1891: Living in Hammersmith with his brother Henry, manufacturer of stage illusions


Company Name

J.H. Dallmeyer Ltd1892 -
J.H. Dallmeyer1860 - 1892

Company Address

31 Mortimer St., Oxford St., London W11925 - 1941
Carlton House, 11d Regent St., London SW11920 - 1925
19, 21 & 23 Oxford St., London1913 - 1917
25 Newman St., London1888 - 1913
19 Bloomsbury St., London W1860 - 1887Between Oxford St. and Streatham St. Later WC postal district
Church End Works. Willesden, London NW1911 -NW10 postal district from 1917
83 Denzil Rd., Neasden, London1906 - 1911

John Henry Dallmeyer (b. 1832, d. 1883) was described as an optician living at West Heath Rd in the 1881 census. Prior to establishing his own company in 1860 he was working for Andrew Ross and before that W. Hewitt. In 1854 he married Hannah Ross daughter of Andrew Ross. His sons were Thomas Rudolphus Dallmeyer (b. 1859, d. 1906) and Richard Dallmeyer (b. 1870). A portrait of T.R. Dallmeyer is shown on the frontispiece of the 1909 BJA.

Dallmeyer advertisements and other sources give the establishment date as 1860, a Notice of Removal in 'Notes & Queries' for 17 December 1859 states that J.H. Dallmeyer has already moved to Bloomsbury Street.

The move to Newman St. took place on the 1st Feb 1888, the move to Mortimer St. took place on 30 Sep 1925. The transfer from the Denzil Rd address to Church End Works occurred late in 1911, the two were adjoining sites; Denzil Road and Willesden High Road are linked by Dallmeyer Road.

Cyril Frederick Lan-Davis (b. 1887, d. 1915), was a director of the company and author of 'Telephotography'.

BJA 1912. BJA 1907, p. 1138. BJA 1908, p. 553. BJA 1938, p. 38. BJP 6/10/1911, p. 772 . YBP 1888, p. cxxix. AP 16/9/1925, p.292. BJP 18 Jan 1884 p. 37.

Further Information:
John Henry Dallmeyer died 30 Dec 1883, Dallmeyer had been in poor health the death occurred whilst on a cruise off the coast of New Zealand. Effects £78,257

David Allan (Dallan)

See Allan, David.

Davidson, C.

Company Name

C. Davidson & SonsListed as camera makers

Company Address

23 Paradise Row, Greengate, Manchester- 1894 -

Dawes & Simpson

Company Name

Dawes & SimpsonActive 1857 - 1858

Company Address

41 Chandos St., London1858
24 Thavies Inn, London1857 - 1858Andrew Dawes here previously

Robert Dawes, William Cameron Simpson, Listed as apparatus manufacturers but elsewhere described as commissioning agents.

Lon. Gaz. 12/11/1858, p. 4827.

Dawkins & Son

Company Name

W. Dawkins and Sons

Company Address

37 Cox Street West, Balsall Heath, Birmingham

William Thomas Dawkins died in 1894 his three sons continued the business but probably for only a short while.

Lon. Gaz. 14/12/1894, p. 7387.

Further Information:
  • William Thomas Dawkins
  • Born: 1841 Nuneaton
  • Spouse: Elizabeth
  • Died: 22 Aug 1894
  • 1881: Photographic Cabinet Maker Employing 4 Boys. Living at 37 Cox St. West

  • Lorenzo Albert Dawkins. Son of William Thomas Dawkins
  • Born: 1867
  • 1901: Photographic Apparatus Maker living in Conybere St.
  • 1905: Photographic frame maker i.e. printing frames
  • 1911: Wood Working Machinist

  • Arthur Dawkins Son of William Thomas Dawkins
  • Born: 1871
  • 1901: Photographic Camera Maker

  • Alfred Dawkins Son of William Thomas Dawkins
  • Born: 1873
  • Photographic Apparatus Maker

  • Lorenzo Field
  • Born: 1832
  • Died: 26 July 1884 of 24 St Mary St. Ladywood Birmingham, cabinet maker
  • 1861: Cabinet mkr
  • 1866: Issued provisional patent 1786 for "improvements in photographic printing frames". Described as cabinet maker
  • 1871: Photographic artist
  • 1878: Described as a photographic cabinet maker in a patent application.
  • 1881: Cabinet Maker Master Employing 19 men and 7 girls. Living at 19 Mary Street
  • Lorenzo married Jane West her mother was Sarah West, Sarah married (after the birth of Jane) William Dawkins their son was William Thomas Dawkins

Dawkins, W.A. & Co

Company Name

W.A. Dawkins & Co.1892 -
Stanley and Dawkins- 1892

Company Address

Speedwell Works, Warstone Parade East, Warstone Lane, Birmingham
40 Edmund St, Birmingham
80 Buckingham St., Birmingham

The partnership between William Oswald Leonard Stanley and William Arthur Dawkins Electricians and Electrical Engineers and Manufacturers of Photographic and Scientific Apparatus was dissolved in 1892. Dawkins then ran the company in 1894 he patented a changing box (BP 12119/1894).

Lon. Gaz. 3/5/1892, p. 2578.


Company Name

John Charles Dennis

Company Address

118 Bishopsgate, London
122 Bishopsgate, London

Supplied the Cundell camera.

On the Practice of the Calotype Process of Photography. Philosophical Magazine, May 1844, p. 321.

Further Information:
See Clifton, Sci. Inst. Makers for dates of Dennis.

Dixie, G.

Company Name

George DixieActive 1851 - 1868Dealer and case maker

Company Address

30 Tysoe St., Spafields, London1852 - 1868
29 Tysoe St., Spafields, London1851 - 1852

Dockree, Walter

Company Name

Walter Dockree & Co.

Until around 1910 Dockree was working with Houghtons (patents were issued in their joint names). From c. 1910 he was trading under the name of Walter Dockree & Co. In 1915 he joined Staley, Shew & Co. who continued to sell the Britisher Reflex that was made by Dockree. Staley, Shew traded for only a few years. Dockree then worked for, or collaborated with, Houghton-Butcher on their reflex cameras. Staley's 1916 BJA advertisement states that Dockree has joined the new company and that he was the manufacturer of the Britisher Reflex.

Further Information:
  • Walter Dockree
  • Born: 1874 Clerkenwell
  • Married: Mary Elizabeth Edwards, 1898
  • Died: 1952
  • 1901: Camera maker. Living at Clarendon Rd. Walthamstow
  • 1911: Photographic Camera Maker. Living at 227 Vicarage Road Leyton
  • 1939: Scientific Instrument Maker Experimental Camera Work. Same address


Company Name

Drem Products Ltd1928 -London

Company Address

37 Bedford St., Strand, London WC2

The Drem company was founded around 1924 by Dr. Emil Mayer. The directors of the London firm are given as Dr. Emil Mayer and Alfred Oglesby. Sands & Hunter were at the same address.


Company Name

Ferdinand Drier1860 -Stereoscopic manu.

Company Address

16 Walbrook, London1860 -

Dudley, R.J.

Company Name

Robert J. DudleyActive 1861 - 1864Dealer, case maker

Company Address

28 Gloucester St., Clerkenwell, London1861 - 1864


Company Name

Dufay Ltd
Dufay-Chromex Ltd1936 -

Company Address

14 - 16 Cockspur St., London SW1

Spicer-Dufay Ltd was formed around 1932, Ilford were share holders. A year later Ilford's stake increased and the company name changed to Spicer-Dufay (British) Ltd. From this time Ilford were handling the manufacture and distribution of Dufay Colour film. In 1936 Dufay-Chromex was formed to handle the distribution, Ilford's involvement decreased from around 1938 though they were still involved in the manufacturing process.

The company structure of Spicer-Dufay and Dufay-Chromex is not clear, there were several trading companies along with purely holding companies. The major firms involved were Spicer, a printers, and Ilford. Cinecolor joined at the formation of Dufay-Chromex, which is where the Chromex name comes from. There was also a Dufaycolor Ltd. When Dufaycolor film was ended Dufay Ltd became a holding and investment company, Coronet Ltd was one such acquisition.

The Dufay-Chromex factory at Elstree was the former Wellington & Ward factory.

Lon. Gaz. 23/3/1937, p. 1936.

Duke & Neddermeyer

See Neddermeyer.


Company Name

M.W. Dunscombe1874 -

Company Address

St Augustine's Parade, Bristol

M.W. Dunscombe took over the business of Braham & Co., to whom he had been an apprentice, in 1874. He was primarily an optician (spectacles) but supplied other optical goods including cameras. They were still advertising cameras in the 1950s.

John Braham died in 1864 and had recently moved from Bristol to London. The 1874 date given above comes from Morrison-Low who gives her source as street directories. In the 1871 census Dunscombe is described as an Opticians Manager at St Augustine's Parade. In 1866 Dunscombe was made bankrupt whilst living in London as an opticians assistant. At the about the same time Frederick Joseph Braham (of Birmingham) and Joseph Braham (of Bristol), two of John Braham's sons, were also made bankrupt.

Lon. Gaz. 2 Nov 1866, p. 5813. Morrison-Low, Making Scientific Instruments. The Science Museum in London holds a collection of spectacles amassed by Dunscombe.

Further Information:
  • Matthew William Dunscombe
  • Born: 1842
  • Married: Clara Parkins 1866
  • Died: 6 Jun 1918
  • 1861: Opticians clerk, living at Whitehall Gdns, Westminster with parents
  • 1871: Opticians manager. At St Augustine's Parade
  • 1881: Optician Master Employing 4 Men 2 Boys
  • 1898: Freedom of the City Admission Papers, Spectacle Makers Company. 10 St Augustine's Parade

Eastman Kodak

See Kodak.


Company Name

Edkins & SonActive c. 1850 - 1852Partnership dissolved early 1852. Son's name was John Parry Edkins
Sam. Sabine Edkins1836 - c. 1850Retailer of Dag. plates. Silversmith and globe maker

Company Address

16 Salisbury Sq., Fleet St., London1836 - 1850

Lon. Gaz. 13/4/1852.

Edward M. Clarke

Company Name

Edward M. Clarke

Company Address

428 Strand, London

Supplier of philosophical instruments, known to have retailed cameras in the early 1840s.

Edwards, Austin

Company Name

Austin Edwards LtdWarwick
Austin EdwardsWarwick
Austin EdwardsTottenham

Established in 1893, they briefly became part of Britannia Works in 1895 then resumed business under the previous name. Moved to Warwick around October 1898. The manufacture of roll-film started in 1902. Part of the BPI group from 1915. Edwards was part owner, along with Nelson, Dale & Co, of the Warwick Dry Plate Co.

Austin Edwards was previously in partnership with B.J Edwards. The firm used the trade mark of Setoloid (no. 195983, 198878) from c. 1897.

PA 1897, p. 51. BJA 1898, p. 326. BJP 21/10/1898, p. 684. Phot. Dealer Oct/1898, p. 84, has an interview with Edwards and includes a photograph of him and the factory. Phot. Dealer Jun/1903, p. 167. Lon. Gaz. 1/9/1893, p. 5009.

Further Information:
  • Austin Clay Edwards. Son of Benjamin Joseph Edwards
  • Born: 12 Dec. 1864
  • Married: Claresa Elizabeth Oakes 15 Sep 1892
  • Died: 1944

Edwards, B.J.

Company Name

B.J. Edwards & Co.1905 - 1909
B.J. Edwards & Co. Ltd1900 - 1905Registered in July 1900 with capital of £20,000
B.J. Edwards & Co.- 1900
B.J. Edwards- 1877 -

Company Address

Castle Bar Works. Ealing Dean1900 -
6 & 9 The Grove. Hackney- 1884 - 1900
6 The Grove. Hackney- 1877 -
61 Fleet St.c. 1876/77

B.J. Edwards was a photographer and manufacturer of items such as collodion, from around 1881 he started producing dry-plates. Edwards were the first, in 1887, to make orthochromatic plates in Britain. The firm became a limited company in 1900, in the 1906 BJA their advertisement states that the founder (B.J. Edwards) now has control of the company once more. The company was acquired by Leto Photo Materials Co. (1905) Ltd. in 1909. The Ealing works remained and 'Edwards' became a brand name. Benjamin Joseph Edwards was the father of Austin Edwards, after retirement from 'B.J. Edwards' he started a small factory - Wisto - in Hayes Middlesex. A photograph of B.J. Edwards is in the BJA 1926.

In the BJA of 1877 a photographic printers is advertised as B.J. Edwards & Co. at 61 Fleet St., this was a partnership between Edwards and Herbert Montague Wright which was dissolved in 1877. A photo-mechanical process known as Photo-Tint was operated.

At some time Austin Clay Edwards was a partner in B.J. Edwards & Co., this ended in June 1893.

BJA 1888. BJA 1910, p. 159. BJA 1915, p. 421. BJA 1926, p. 176. Phot. Dealer Aug/1903, p. 30. Lon. Gaz. 1/9/1893, p. 5009. Lon. Gaz. 20/7/1877.

Further Information:
  • Benjamin Joseph Edwards
  • Born: 1838
  • Married: Catherine Clay 1861
  • Died: 1914

Edwards, W.

Company Name

F. Edwards Brown1898 - 1900
W. Edwards- 1898

Company Address

3 Exeter St., Birmingham

In 1898 W. Edwards retired from the business, his grandson F. Edwards Brown then managed the firm. The firm purchased the factory and machinery (i.e. for apparatus manufacture) of the European Blair Company and manufactured the Hawkmoth camera and other items. The firm was bankrupt in 1900.

Phot. Dealer Jan/1898, p. 20, Aug/1900, p. 43.

Elliott, C.E.

Company Name

C.E. Elliott1855 -

Company Address

36 Jewin St., London1865 -To after 1902
5 Aldermanbury, Postern, London1860 - 1865
38 Jewin Crescent, London1880 -
32 Jewin Crescent, London1878 - 1880
35 Jewin Crescent, London1865 - 1878

Charles Earp Elliott, dealer and importer. Sometimes styled City of London Photographic Stores. Manufacturers of the Cook Patent camera, a model with a built-in changing box.

YBP 1887. BJP 8/7/1870, p. 312.

Further Information:
  • Charles Earp Elliott
  • Born: 1829 Nottingham
  • Married: Mary Emma Ingmire 21 Feb 1855
  • Died: 1904 Probable
  • Spent some time around 1850 in the US

Elliott & Fry

Company Name

Elliott & Fry Ltd.1911 - 1963Photographers
Elliott & Fry1863 - 1911Photographers

Company Address

55 & 56 Baker St., London1886 -
55 Baker St., London1863 - 1886
7 Gloucester Terrace, London1886 - 1893
Park Road BarnetPrinting works

Established in 1863. The partnership between Joseph John Elliott and Clarence Edmund Fry was dissolved on 31/12/1892, Elliott remained at Baker St. trading as Elliott & Fry. Fry took over the Gloucester Terrace studio trading as C.E. Fry & Son. E.C. Elliott, son of the founder, became sole proprieter in 1903 on the death of his father. Elliott & Fry became a limited company in 1911 with capital of £1000. The company was wound up and taken over in 1963.

The partnership running the printing side of Elliott & Fry in Barnet was dissolved on 31/7/1887, Elliott carried on the business as Elliott & Son manufacturing photographic plates and papers.

The Baker St. studio is described in The Photographic Studios of Europe.

Lon. Gaz. 14/2/1888, p. 987. Lon. Gaz. 14/2/93, p. 838. Lon. Gaz. 16/10/1956, p. 5866. Lon. Gaz. 8/3/1963, p. 2145. BJP 7/4/1911, p. 272.

Elliott & Sons

For later entries see Ross Ensign.

Company Name

Elliott & Sons Ltd1901 -Ltd from 20 Dec 1900
Elliott & Son- 1900

Originally the printing works of Elliott & Fry; in 1887 this part of the business was bought out by J.J. Elliott becoming Elliott & Son which went on to manufacture photographic plates and papers. Elliott remained a partner in Elliott & Fry. The sales division became part of Barnet Ensign from 1945.

Birt Acres was manager of Elliott & Son until 1895.

BJA 1890, p. 33. BJA 1904, p. 672. BJA 1912, p. 540. Phot. Dealer Apr/1903, p. 106. Carries an obituary of Elliott. Phot. Dealer Aug/1903, p. 31. BJP 26/4/1895, p. 268. BJP 11/1/01, p. 29.


Company Name

Wilfred Emery

Company Address

15 Anson Parade, Cricklewood, London- 1900 -
Dyne Rd., Brondesbury, LondonDescribed as works then main address
3 Soho St., London- 1901Here by 1897
24 South St., Baker St., London

Primarily printers, enlargers and retouchers. From the late 1890s they sold the Apek range of cameras, some of which were imported from America.

YBP 1901, p. 177. BJP 2/8/1901, p. 495.

England, John

Company Name

John EnglandActive 1855 - 1864Listed as app. manu. from 1861, also globe maker

Company Address

56 Upper Charlotte St., Fitzroy Sq., London1857 - 1864
1 Oxford St., London1855 -

Ensign Ltd

See Houghton-Butcher for information on the company. The brand name 'Ensign' was used from 1902 by Houghton.

Company Name

Ensign Ltd1930 - 1940


Company Name

Heinrich Ernemann A.G.

Heinrich Ernemann (b. 1850, d. 1297) founded the company in 1889. The change to a limited liability company was around 1899.

Dresden 150 years.

European Blair

Company Name

European Blair Camera Co. Ltd.c. 1893 - 1903

Company Address

9 Southampton St., Londonc. 1893 -

The European Blair Camera Co. imported cameras from the United States, they also manufactured film, plates and, for a time, cameras in the UK. The company was wound up in 1903. In 1896 they purchased the Premier Dry Plate Co. of Notting Hill. In 1899 the offices moved to The Mills, Foots Cray, Kent. A factory at Chalk Farm is also mentioned. Following the winding up of the company the factory and machinery were purchased by the firm of F. Edwards Brown.

An article in The Photogram of 1894 gives some background information on the European Blair company and parent company in the US. The Blair Camera Co. was founded in 1881 with capital of $7,500, European Blair, when formed, had capital of £25,000.

Phot. Dealer Jan/1898, p. 20. Phot. Dealer May/1899 p. 105. Optical Magic Lantern Journal 12/1896, p. xx. Lon. Gaz. 5/6/1903, p. 3601. The Photogram 1894, p. 113.

Evans, Sons, Lescher & Webb

Company Name

Evans, Sons, Lescher & Webb Ltd- 1925
Evans, Sons, Lescher & Webb

Company Address

Hanover St., Liverpool
60 Bartholomew Close, London

Formed in 1902 by the amalgamation of Evans & Sons and Lescher & Webb. The predecessors of this firm were various partnerships formed by members of the Evans and Lescher families, based in London and Liverpool, their main business was as wholesale druggists. The earliest reference is for 1843 when they are at 60 Bartholomew Close.

Evans, Sons & Co. sold cameras under the Hanover brand name.

The Evanite Trade name used by the firm for chemical substances was registered in 1911, the addresses given were: 56 Hanover St. Liverpool and 60 Bartholomew Close London (no. 332369).

Phot. Dealer May/1904, p. 120. BJP 1911, p. 423.


Company Name

Jonathan Fallowfield Ltd1921 -
J. Fallowfieldc. 1887 - 1921
J. Fallowfield & Co.1859 - c. 1886
Fallowfield & Jameson- 1859Founded 1856

Company Address

74 Newman St., London W11950 -
87 Newman St., London W11941 - 1950At one time occupied by J.F. Shew
61-62 Newman St., London W11923 - 1941
146 Charing Cross Rd., London WC1890 - 1923Move to here around Aug 1890. WC2 postal district from 1917
86 Oakley St., Lambeth. SE1883 - 1890
35 & 36 Lower Marsh. Lambeth. SE1885 - 1890
36 Lower Marsh. Lambeth. Sc. 1856 - 1885SE postal district from 1868

Jonathan Fallowfield opened a chemist shop in 1856 probably in partnership with William Jameson who retired in 1859. The sale of photographic supplies dates to 1860 or before. In 1888 the firm was bought by F.W. Hindley (d. 1925). In 1930 the directors are given as F. Duncan Hindley, H.J. Traise and E.J. Collier. The Charing Cross and later addresses were often styled 'Central Photographic Stores'. The BJA of 1898 shows an illustration of the Charing Cross Road address, the BJA of 1925 shows illustrations of the Newman St. premises.

Fallowfield lived for most of his life in the Brixton area of London. Frank Miall, associated with Fallowfield cameras, was also from that area.

In his book, Victorian Snapshots, Paul Martin describes a visit to Fallowfields in Lower Marsh.

The image on the right shows the Lower Marsh building, the image far right shows the Oakley St. building.

BJA 1898, p. 227. BJA 1921, p. 314. BJA 1925, p. 531. BJA 1930, p. 498. Phot. Dealer Aug/1900, p. 34. Lon. Gaz. 11/2/1859, p.588.

Further Information:
  • Jonathan Fallowfield
  • Born: 1835 Hesket Newmarket, Cumberland
  • Spouse: Mary
  • Died: 23 Feb 1920, 45 Brixton Hill, effects £51,360
  • 1881: Chemist, employing 2 assistants, 2 porters & a boy
  • 1891: Living at 45 Brixton Hill

  • Frank Miall
  • Born: 1844 Hambledon, Hampshire
  • Married: Annie Goodenough 1867
  • Died: 22 Jul 1926 New South Wales, Australia
  • 1871: Jeweller
  • 1881: Phot. chemist living at 54 Shelgate Rd. Clapham
  • 1891: Camera Maker living at 13 Shelgate Rd.
  • 1891: Phot. chemist living at 13 Shelgate Rd.
  • 1906: Emigrated to Australia

H.J. White, the manager of Fallowfield, died in 1900.

Farmer & Sons

Company Name

Farmer & Sons

Company Address

Albert Wks. Hampton

The Photographic Dealer has a report of a visit to the factory, it states that the firm makes wooden cameras as well as many other items.

Phot. Dealer May/1903, p. 144.

Farrow, E.H.

Company Name

E.H. Farrow

Company Address

441 Hornsey Rd., London1900 -
398 Hornsey Rd., London- 1900

Manufacturers of camera brass-work, they may also have manufactured cameras as several wooden models carry their name plate.

Further Information:
At Christie's auction of 14/1/1993 a camera was sold with the name plaque "Made by E.H. Farrow & Co., Hornsey Rise, London", another from the 17/2/2004 sale had a plaque "E.H. Farrow, Manufacturer, Hornsey Rise, London".

Fleming, G.S.

Company Name

Gilbert Stanton FlemingActive 1850 - 1861Listed as dealer and manufacturer
Later at 481 Oxford St. non-photographic

Company Address

498 and 501 New Oxford St., London
498 Oxford St., London1853 - 1861
16 Rathbone Place, London1852 - 1853
37 Beech St., Barbican, London1851 - 1852
15 Wellington St., Goswell Rd., London1850 - 1852Listed as Gilbert Fleming

Fradelle, F. Albert

Company Name

F. Albert FradellePhotographers

Company Address

62 Cheapside, London1880Municipal & County Portrait Gallery.
246 Regent St., London1877 - 1886
230 Regent St., London1877
19 Langham Pl., London1864 - 1869

The best way of reading the various Fradelle entries is:

  • Fradelle & Young 1886 - after 1900.
  • F. Albert Fradelle 1877 - 1886.
  • Fradelle & Marshall 1872 - 1877.
  • Fradelle & Leach 1869 - 1872.
  • F. Albert Fradelle 1864 - 1869.
Albert Young seems to have ceased trading under his own name in 1886 and took over or joined what was previously the firm of Fradelle.

F. Albert Fradelle died 18/10/1884.

Lon. Gaz. 21/11/1884, p. 5164. Photographic News 31/10/1884, p. 704.

Fradelle & Leach

Company Name

Fradelle & Leach1869 - 1872Photographers

Company Address

230 Regent St., London1869 - 1872

The partnership between Fradelle and Eugenia Caroline Bolton (previously Leach) was dissolved on 1 March 1872.

Lon. Gaz. 22/3/72, p. 1607.

Fradelle & Marshall

Company Name

Fradelle & Marshall1872 - 1877Photographers & Miniature Painters

Company Address

246 Regent St., London1875 - 1877
230 Regent St., London1872 - 1877

The partnership was declared bankrupt in late 1877. William Shury Marshall then traded from 34 Parliament St.

Lon. Gaz. 9/10/1877, p. 5589.

Fradelle & Young

Company Name

Fradelle & YoungPhotographers

Company Address

283 Regent St., London1897 -
246 Regent St., London1886 - 1897
17 Regent St., London1886This was Albert Young's address

Francis, H.

Company Name

Hy. FrancisActive 1856 - 1865Phot. artist then dealer

Company Address

61 Gt. Russell St., London1861 - 1865From 1866 Henry Disney Francis is listed at the same address
101 Gt. Russell St., London1856 - 1861


Company Name

A & B Franks- 1897In existence for only a short time
A. Franks

Company Address

95 & 97 Deansgate, Manchester
95 Deansgate, Manchester
44 Market St., Manchester

Louis Aubrey Franks was generally known as Aubrey. He (unless there was a second person of that name) was at 95 Deansgate (and 2,4 King St.) trading as L.A. Franks when made bankrupt in 1879, shortly after that date Aubrey Franks was at 95 Deansgate, trading as A. Franks, optician. The partnership between Aubrey and Benjamin Franks, trading as A & B Franks at 95 Deansgate, was dissolved in 1897.

Lon. Gaz. 7/3/1879, p. 1998. Lon. Gaz. 19/1/1897, p. 363. Lon. Gaz. 21/4/1882.

Further Information:
Aubrey's father, Joseph, was at 44 Market St. when made bankrupt in 1882. The National Archive hold material on Franks. See Early Photography in Leeds, Leeds Art Galleries 1981, for a possible connection with an earlier Franks.
    Louis Aubrey Franks
    Born: 1854
    Spouse: Fanny
    Died: 7 Dec 1918

    Benjamin Franks, brother of Louis Aubrey
    Born: 1862
    Married: Helena Mindelsohn

Friese Greene

See also Friese Greene & Collings, Collings, Whyte Ltd, Collings, J.W. & A.E. and Collings, A.E..

Company Name

Friese GreenePhotographer

Company Address

7 Corridor, Bath- 1884 -
34 Gay St., Bath- 1884 -, 1888 -Then as Friese Greene and Simpson
Queen's Rd., Clifton
Union St., Plymouth
22 Ebury St., London- 1915 -
135 Regent St., London1891 - 1892
182 Oxford St., London1890 - 1891
162 Sloane St., London1890 - 1891
20 Brook St., London1890
110 Westbourne Grove, London1888 - 1890
100 Westbourne Grove, London1888 - 1891
92 Piccadilly, London1886 - 1887, 1888 - 1892
69 New Bond St., London1885 - 1887

The Friese Greene and Collings group is quite complicated, Friese Greene had studios in Bath, Plymouth and Clifton, in 1885 he started studios in London, in 1887 he went into partnership with A.A and J.W. Collings, probably to finance the venture, trading as Friese Greene & Collings. The partnership soon collapsed (1888), Friese Greene then worked under his own name for a while before going into partnership with Frederick William Simpson as Friese Greene and Simpson, a short while later this became a limited company.

After the split the two Collings brothers traded together as J.W. & A.E. Collings and separately as A.E. Collings and Whyte Collings Ltd.

The London Gazette of 1888 notes that the partnership between Arthur Albert Collings, James Whyte Collings and William Friese Greene trading at 69 New Bond St., 92 Piccadilly, 100 and 110 Westbourne Grove, London and 69 Western Rd. Brighton, 34 Gay St. Bath, was dissolved on 1/5/1888. It then goes on to detail how the occupancy of the studios is split, that differs to that shown in trade directories. The addresses shown here are from the trade directories.

The partnership between Friese Greene and Frederick William Simpson trading as Friese Greene and Simpson of Gay St. Bath was dissolved on 25/8/1890. They then formed Friese Greene Simpson and Co. Ltd.

Friese Greene was born William Greene or Green, after his marriage he started to use his wife's maiden name, trade directories show him as Greene, Friese; photograph mounts are signed Friese Greene. Arthur Albert Collings used the name Arthur Esme Collings during his time in photography.

Lon. Gaz. 2/11/1888, p. 5964. Lon. Gaz. 26/8/1890, p. 4687. Lon. Gaz. 21/5/1897, p. 2865. Lon. Gaz. 16/7/1897, p. 3990.

Friese Greene & Collings

Company Name

Friese Greene & Collings1887 - 1888Photographer

Company Address

34 Gay St., Bath1887 - 1888
69 New Bond St.1887 - 1888
92 Piccadilly1887 -1888
110 Westbourne Grove, London1888
100 Westbourne Grove, London1887 - 1888
69 Western Rd., Brighton1888

Fry, C.E. & Son

See also Elliott & Fry.

Company Name

C.E. Fry1893 -Photographer

Company Address

7 Gloucester Terrace, London1893 -

Clarence Edmund Fry was previously one of the partners of Elliott & Fry.

Fry, Samuel

Company Name

Fry Manufacturing Co.1889 - 1892
Samuel Fry & Co. Ltdc. 1884/85 - 1889
Samuel Fry & Co.- c. 1885
Samuel Fry

Company Address

Southsea Rd., LondonFactory
5 Chandos St., Londonc. 1888 -Office for the dry plate co.
9 Surbiton Park Terrace. Kingston-on-Thames1865 - c. 1885Studio
83 Gracechurch St., London1862 - 1865Studio. Also styled Globe Photographic Co. in 1865
79 Kings Rd., Brighton1857 - 1860Studio

Samuel Fry started work at the London School of Photography, after two or three years he formed his own business as a photographer in 1857 at 79 Kings Road Brighton, he remained at Brighton until around 1860. In 1862 he opened a studio at 83 Gracechurch Street London in partnership with Charles Hamilton Colepeper, trading as Fry and Hamilton. The partnership lasted only until April of that year when it was dissolved. At some point, probably early in 1865, two partners were acquired - Frederick Gush and William J. Ferguson - this partnership, trading as The Globe Photographic Co. and possibly Fry, Gush and Ferguson, was dissolved in July 1865. Gush and Ferguson continued to operate the studio in Gracechurch St. Fry had opened a studio in Kingston-on-Thames and continued business at that address. By 1885 the portrait business had been disposed of allowing Fry to concentrate on dry plate manufacture.

Samuel Fry probably began the commercial manufacture of gelatine dry plates in 1879, it must have been before 1880 as there is an advertisement in the British Journal Photographic Almanac for that year which includes a list of photographers using the Kingston-Special Dry Plate. The plates were manufactured at Kingston-on-Thames. Samuel Fry & Co. Ltd, was wound up in September 1889, the business was carried on by Samuel Herbert Fry, son of Samuel Fry, and Arthur Eugene Hayman trading as Fry Manufacturing Co. this partnership was wound up at the end of 1890 though manufacturing continued until 1892.

Gush and Ferguson operated a studio at 179 Regent St. until 1865 and later at 194 Regent St.

Samuel Herbert Fry (d. 1921) was offering a printing and enlargement service from 12 South Villas Camden Square in 1902, later (1907) he opened a studio at 5 Highbury Grove.

BJA 1880, p. v. BJP 3 Oct 1890 p. 628. Lon. Gaz. 20 May p. 2637. Lon. Gaz. 8/8/1865, p. 3911. Lon. Gaz. 4/10/1889, p. 5254. Lon. Gaz. 24/3/1891, p. 1700. Lon. Gaz. 9 Aug 1892, p. 4524. [accessed 2021]. BJP 26/9/02, p. viii.

Further Information:
  • Samuel Fry
  • Born: 1835
  • Died: 28 Sept 1890


Company Name

Joseph Alex. Furnival

Company Address

5 Kay St., Ardwick Green, Manchester

Further Information:
  • Joseph Alexander Furnival
  • Born: 1834
  • Married: Elizabeth Bracewell, 1858
  • Died: 1909
  • 1861: Living at 41 Edge St.
  • 1871: Living at 41 Edge St.
  • 1881: Living at 5 Kay St. Cabinet maker emp 2 men and 1 boy
  • 1891: Living at 5 Kay St. Cabinet maker emp 2 men
  • 1901: Living at 5 Kay St. Cabinet maker
  • Also supplied materials and tools for the watch trade.


Company Name

Louis Gandolfi & Sons1932 -
Louis Gandolfi1885 - 1932

Company Address

Borland Rd., Peckham.1928 -
84 Hall Rd., Peckham Rye.1913 - 1928
752 Old Kent Rd., London- 1913Between Asylum Rd. and Gervase St.
15A Kensington Place. Westminster

The firm was established in 1885 by Louis Gandolfi who had previously worked for Lejeune & Perken. Gandolfi made extensively for the trade (e.g. Watson, Sands & Hunter) and supplied many government departments with specialised cameras.

The Gandolfi family lived at the Old Kent Rd premises and later at the Hall Rd address. At his death the effects of Louis Gandolfi amounted to £1505. The business was continued by his three sons: Thomas Joseph, Frederick Louis and Arthur Ernest.

Gandolfi - Sci. Mus. leaflet. BJA 1933, p. 304.

Further Information:
  • Louis Gandolfi
  • Born: c. 1864 Clerkenwell
  • Married: Caroline Lucy King 9 May 1885
  • Died: 22 Jan 1932

  • Thomas Joseph Gandolfi
  • Born: 1890
  • Married: Caroline Mary Hilson 20 Mar 1916
  • Died: 26 Aug 1963

  • Frederick Louis Gandolfi
  • Born: 8 Dec 1904
  • Died: 1990

  • Arthur Ernest Gandolfi
  • Born: 4 Jul 1906

Garland, J.

Company Name

John GarlandListed as phot. manu.

Company Address

32 Hermes St., Pentonville, London1879
4 Rodney St., Pentonville, London1878 - 1879
30 Rodney St., Pentonville, London1870 - 1878
15 Weston St., Pentonville, London
5 Weston St., Pentonville, London- 1867 -

Established around 1856, Garland was previously working for Ottewill.

Amateur's Manual of Photography, edited by Richard Kingham, 1865, p. 10. BJA 1867, p. xxix.

Further Information:
  • John Garland
  • Born: 1833 Edinburgh
  • 1871: Phot. App. Manu. employing 1 man. 30 Rodney St

Garner, C

Company Name

C. Garner

Company Address

10 Poland St., London

Agents for Ica, Ernemann and Mimosa prior to the formation of Garner & Peeling in 1927.

Garner & Jones

Company Name

Garner & Jones

Company Address

Polebrook House, Golden Sq., London

Formed around 1931 after Garner & Peeling was dissolved. Agents for Ihagee. Later (1940) at 103 The Ridge. Orpington.

Further Information:
  • Alexander James Jones also known as Alec J. Jones
  • Born: 18 Apr 1860
  • Married: Ada Aline Gorecki 1890. Divorced 1909
  • Married: Florence Jefferies
  • Died: 16 Sep 1940, Marsden Lodge Torquay
  • 1911: Living at 33 Hindes Rd, Wealdstone, Harrow
  • 1928: Living at Purley Oaks Rd Sanderstead
  • 1928: Living at 23 Morgan Av. Torquay
  • Jones divorced his first wife citing adultery with Charles Urban. Urban subsequently married Ada Aline Jones (Gorecki) in 1910. Jones worked for S.J. Levi & Co. which later became Levi, Jones & Co. He was later a salesman and directoy at Butcher & Son. He then worked with Chistopher Garner before forming Garner & Jones.

  • Christopher Garner
  • Born: 25 Apr 1872 Hertfordshire
  • Married: Montee Lillah Hornby 1895. (d. 1929)
  • Second wife: Dorothy Longman Garner
  • Died: 23 July 1947
  • 1911: Director Of Picture Palace. Living at 33 Glenton Road, Lee. South East London
  • 1915: Living at 216 Croydon Rd
  • 1933: Living at 26 Addington Road

Garner & Peeling

Company Name

Garner & Peeling

Company Address

Polebrook House, Golden Sq., London

Garner & Peeling was formed in 1927 as agents for Zeiss-Ikon in the UK. The firm was wound up at the end of 1930 when Zeiss-Ikon Ltd was formed. C. Garner had previously been the agent for Ica and Ernemann; Peeling & Van Neck (which continued in business) had been the agent for Goerz. After the firm was wound-up Garner formed Garner & Jones which handled Ihagee in the UK.

Lon. Gaz. 26/12/1930, p. 8334.


Company Name

Arthur Gask & Co.1933 -
Arthur Gask Ltd1928 - 1933
Arthur Gask & Co.c. 1924 - 1928Possibly also as A.H. Gask

Company Address

50 Mortimer St., London1932 -
60 Conduit St., Regent St., London Wc. 1924 - 1932

Retailer, especially of high quality cameras. Gask was previously a manager at London Stereoscopic.

Further Information:
  • Arthur Henry Gask b. 1877, Hoxton


Company Name

Alexis Gaudin1861 - 1865Importers
Alexis Gaudin & Brother1855 - 1861
Alexis Gaudin1854

Company Address

5 Sermon Lane, London1859 - 1865
26 Skinner St., London1855 - 1859
67 Newgate St., London1854And at 9 Rue De La Perle. Paris


Company Name

L. Gaumont & Cie.
Gaumont Co. Ltd1909 -
Gaumont & Co.1898 - 1909

Company Address

5 & 6 Sherwood St., London1909 -
22 & 25 Cecil Court, London1902 - 1908No. 22 was previously occupied by Hepworth
25 Cecil Court, London1898 - 1902

Gaumont were the London agents for Lumière from 1899 to 1901. The British branch became a limited company in 1909, the manager was A.C. Bromhead.

BJP 16/6/1899, p. 370. BJP 13/8/1909, p. 637. Barnes Vol 2, p. 157. Barnes Vol 3, p. 132. Barnes Vol 4, p. 127.

Further Information:
  • Alfred Claude Bromhead
  • Born: 1876 Southsea
  • Died: 5 Mar 1963


Company Name

Rottmann Gebhardt & Co.1858 -Stereoscopic manu. and importer

Company Address

24 Lawrence Lane, London1858 -

Gem Dry Plate

Company Name

Gem Dry Plate Co. Ltd1895 -

Company Address

Villiers Rd., Willesden Green, London1895 -92 or 92A Villiers Rd.

Established in January 1895, T.E.H. Bullen was Managing Director, T. Thorne Baker was chemist to the firm and, in 1904, a director. Bullen resigned in 1904. Curiously the company was wound up in 1901 and reformed.

Phot. Dealer Aug/1903, p. 31. Lon. Gaz. 12/11/1901, p. 7321.


Company Name

Photo Produits Gevaert
Gevaert & Co.
Gevaert Ltd.1909 -London office.

Company Address

115 Walmer Rd., London W10c. 1918 - c. 1938London office.
60 Wilson St., LondonLondon office.
26 & 27 Farringdon St., London1909 -London office.

Founded on 28th June 1894 by Lieven Gevaert (b. 1869, d. 1935). From 1899 their products were distributed in Britain by L. Trapp & Co. Budge Row London. In 1909 Gevaert Ltd was formed and an office under their own name was opened in London. Gevaert Ltd. had capital of £5,000, the shareholders were L. Gevaert, P. Koep and C.J. Miller.

BJA 1910, p. 363. BJA 1936, p. 216. BJA 1954, p. 556. AP 13/2/1935, p. 145. BJP 18/6/1909, p. 484.

Gladwell, H.W.

Company Name

Hy. Wm. Gladwell Jun.

Company Address

5 Ludgate St., London1859Harry Wm. Gladwell Phot. artist
11 Poultry, London1858Stereoscope importer

Gladwell, Thomas Henry

Company Name

Gladwell Brothers1880 - 1891
Thomas Henry Gladwell1837 - 1879Stereo and photograph publishers and importers

Company Address

20 & 21 Gracechurch St., London1880 -
21 Gracechurch St., London1866 - 1879
87 Gracechurch St., London1860 - 1865City Stereoscopic Depot. 21 Gracechurch becomes non-phot.
21 & 87 Gracechurch St., London1845 - 1865
21 Gracechurch St., London1839 - 1845
3 Mint St., London1837 - 1839

From the early 1840s T.H. Gladwell worked as a carver and gilder from 21 Gracechurch Street the business evolved into selling prints and photographs. A second location, 87 Gracechurch Street, specialised in photographs especially stereos; for a time this was styled the City Stereoscopic Depot. Gladwell's involvement in photographs probably ended with the closing of 87 Gracechurch Street.

H.W. Gladwell, the son of T.H., had for a short time a business at 11 Poultry as a stereoscope importer, he was made bankrupt in 1859. A short time after this he operated as a photographic artist at 5 Ludgate Street. H.W. Gladwell took over the Colonial Tavern at 20 Gracechurch Street around 1879.

On T.H. Gladwell's death in 1879 his sons took over the business at 21 Gracechurch Street under the name of Gladwell Brothers. The Gladwell Brothers partnership was for a defined period and ended in 1891, H.W. and A.T. then split the business (A.E. had died previous to this). Following the split H.W. operated from 25 Philpot Street and 70 & 71 Cheapside as Gladwell & Co. print sellers and fine art dealers. A.T. Gladwell moved from Gracechurch Street to 164 Fenchurch Street with works at 156 Borough (the lease at Gracechurch Street had ended).

Charles F. Gladwell, was a 'photographic publisher' with premises in Newman Street in the 1860s (later in partnership with Thomas Richardson as Gladwell, Richardson & Co.).

Lon. Gaz. 28/10/1859, p. 3914. Lon. Gaz. 12/1/1891, p.213. Lon. Gaz. 22/9/1893, p. 5400.

Further Information:
  • Thomas Henry Gladwell
  • Born: 1811
  • Married: Mary Fox 1 June 1833
  • Died: 10 Feb 1879
  • 1851: Employed 5 men
  • 1865: Gilder, printseller, publisher & importer of foreign photographs

  • Henry William Gladwell
  • Born: 1834
  • Married: Susanna Warnes 1856
  • Died: 19 July 1893

  • Arthur Edward Gladwell
  • Born: 1837
  • Married: Sarah Jane Foan 1870
  • Died: 1889

  • Charles Fox Gladwell
  • Born: 1839
  • Spouse: Charlotte Ann
  • Died: 1870

  • Alfred Thomas Gladwell, usually listed as Thomas
  • Born: 1841
  • Married: Lucy Sophia Elizabeth Bramall
  • Died: 1906

Goerz Optical Works Ltd.

See also Peeling & Van Neck.

Company Name

Goerz Optical Works Ltd.1908 - 1917
Goerz Optical Works1899 - 1908

Company Address

1-6 Holborn Circus, London1901 -
4-5 Holborn Circus, London1899 - 1901

The firm handled the distribution of Goerz products in the UK, it was wound up during World War I under the 'trading with the enemy' act. Paul Ponge ran the business when it was founded.

The Berlin factory produced lens no. 20,000 at the end of 1894, 100,000 in 1901, no. 250,000 was shown at the 1908 RPS exhibition. A Goerz advertisement in the 1924 BJA says that over 575,000 have been made.

Lon. Gaz. 6/2/1917, p. 1315. Phot. Dealer Jul/1899, p. 15. BT 31/18480/98680.

Gogerty, Robert

Company Name

Robert GogertyActive 1837 - 1856Optician and instrument maker

Company Address

72 Fleet St., London1847 - 1856
32 King St., Smithfield, London1842 - 1847
14 St John's Sq., Clerkenwell, London1838 - 1842
19 Gt. Sutton St., Clerkenwell, London1837 - 1838

Further Information:
  • Robert Gogerty
  • Born: 1814
  • Married: Betsy Palmer 1838
  • Early listing show Gogerty as a brass turner, possible death is 1856.

Goldman & Co.

See Columbia Optical and Camera Co. and Mangold Photo Works.


Company Name

I and A Gosling1948 -
Arthur G. Gosling- 1948Established in 1935

Company Address

10 Princes St., Cavendish Sq., London- 1951 -
Red Lion Sq., London1946 -
33 Feltham Av., East Molesey. SurreyAlso at Ilford

Manufactured an exposure meter.


Company Name

J.R. GotzHere until at least 1908

Company Address

215 Shaftesbury Av., London1895 -
150 Shaftesbury Av., London1893 - 1894
19 Buckingham St., Strand, London- 1893

Gotz were importers and dealers but also patented their own equipment including a shutter and a camera (BP 10594/1885). Their photographic involvement seems to have ended in the late 1890s. John Rudolph Gotz.

BJP 18/1/1895, p. 44. BJP 8/2/1895 p. 84.

Grant, T.K.

Company Name

T.K. GrantAgents for Lumière

Company Address

Polebrook House. Golden Sq., London W11927 -
89 Gt. Russell St., London1912 - 1927Previously occupied by Lumière, N.A. & Co.

Further Information:
  • Thomas Knight Grant
  • Born: 26 Oct 1870 Lewisham
  • Married: Ada Blanch Adkins 1900
  • Died: 1940
  • Grant worked for Sandell Films until 1901 as a sales representative he then managed the London branch of Lumière

Greene, William Friese

See Friese Greene.

Greenish, Thomas

Company Name

Thomas Greenish1848 -Later Greenish & Co.

Company Address

20 New St. Dorset Sq., London1848 -

Chemists, issued a photographic catalogue around 1860.

Griffin & Sons

Company Name

Griffin & George Ltd
Griffin & Tatlock Ltd1930 -
John J. Griffin & Sons Ltd- 1930Ltd from before 1890
John J. Griffin & SonsTo after 1885
John J. Griffin

Company Address

28 St John's Lane, London EC11942 -
Kemble St/Kingsway Corner, London1905 - 1942
20 - 26 Sardinia St., London1898 - 1905From October 1898
22 Garrick St., London WC- 1898
2 Long Acre, London ECc. 1893 - 1898
10 Finsbury Sq., LondonMid 1850s
53 Baker St., LondonPrior to 1854
119 Bunhill Row, London1862 -Factory. Later factories at East Molesey and Clerkenwell
119 & 120 Bunhill Row, London- 1862Factory

An 1854 catalogue mentions a Richard Griffin & Co. of Glasgow. The Playfair Collection catalogue states that the brothers Richard Thomas and John Joseph Griffin set up as dealers and manufacturers of chemical apparatus in Glasgow. This may have been as early as 1826 and was certainly before 1837 for which date there is an apparatus catalogue. The London branch was started around 1848.

Charles Griffin was running the firm in 1885 when discharged from bankruptcy. John Ross Griffin (d. 1921), grandson of John Joseph G., worked at the firm at some point. For a short time, c. 1890 - c. 1892, Robert C. Murray managed the photographic side of Griffin. A.W. Green ran the photographic side from 1911 taking over from a Mr. Ibetson.

Griffin's involvement in photographic supplies expanded in the late 1890s and early 1900s. They were distributors for Velox paper and still manufactured albumen paper. Griffin took over the sensitised paper business of J.D. Mucklow in 1900.

The Duraline Trade Name used by Griffin was registered in 1911 (no. 333341).

Anderson, R G W. The Playfair Collection and the Teaching of Chemistry at the University of Edinburgh 1713 - 1858. The Royal Scottish Museum 1978. BJP 7/4/1911, p. 272. Lon. Gaz. 24/3/1885. Phot. Dealer Sep/1899, p. 38, has a article on Griffin and illustrates the Sardinia St. premises. A sensitising factory at Shepherd's Bush is mentioned. Phot. Dealer May/1900, p. 101. Phot. Dealer Sep/1902, p. 226, has an article on the Avern Works factory East Molesey. BJP 1911, p. 672. BJP 5/9/1902, p. 705, a report on the factory in East Molesey. BJP 18/2/1921, p. 97 Death of John R. Griffin.

Further Information:
A sliding box model with two widely spaced positions for the plate holder is in Christie's Cat. 25/11/1993 lot 372, (Finsbury Sq address).

Griffiths, Walter

Company Name

Griffiths Camera Co. Ltd.1901 - 1905
W. Griffiths & Co. Ltd.c. 1891 - 1901
Walter Griffiths- c. 1891

Company Address

5 Union Passage, New End St., Birmingham1892 -
Highgate Sq., Moseley St., Birmingham

Griffiths' earliest advertisements are for photo-lithography and printing services. Enlargers were later sold as a speciality of the firm. In the 1890s cameras were patented and manufactured, in particular the Guinea detective camera. The limited company was formed in 1901 with capital of £2000 and wound up in 1905. The Union St. depot was managed by M.O. Suffield.

Phot. Dealer Apr/1901, p. 97. Phot. Dealer Jun/1903, p. 159. Lon. Gaz. 4/7/1905, p. 4658. Optical Magic Lantern Journal Feb/1892.


Company Name

Grumel & MichelActive 1861 - 1867Dealer, importer. Possibly Francois Remy Grumel who patented a type of photo. album

Company Address

96 Newgate St., London1863 - 1867
77 Hatton Gdn., London1861 - 1863

Haes, Frank

See also McLean, Melhuish, Haes.

Company Name

Frank HaesPhotographer

Company Address

19 Westbourne Grove, London1881 - 1886
41 St George's Pl., London1866 - 1874

Traded as Haes & Vandyk (possibly Carl Vandyk) between 1874 and 1881 from the Wesbourne Grove address. Frank Haes b. 1832 d. 1916.

Hardy, E.H.

Company Name

E.H. Hardy- 1894 -

Company Address

16 Commercial St., Sheffield

An advertisement shows a field camera together with enlarging and printing apparatus. The trade mark 'Delograph' was used. The advertisement, from 1894, also states '16 years with the New Zealand Ordnance Survey Department' giving the impression that the firm was recently formed.


Company Name

G. Hare

Company Address

26 Calthorpe St., London WC1876 -South side on the corner of Gough St. (Gray's Inn side)
1 Lower Calthorpe St., London WCc. 1863 - 1876
140 Pentonville Rd., London N1857 - c. 1863

George Hare was living at the Pentonville Road address in 1861, at that time he employed eight men and one boy. In 1881 he was living at 26 Calthorpe Street and employed 12 men and 3 boys. He was born in St Saviours York where he served an apprenticeship with his father (James) as a joiner, later he moved to London and worked for Ottewill. He remained there for only a year or two before setting up his own workshop. In 1867 he must have had financial problems and agreed payment terms with his creditors. He was survived by three daughters and a son James (b. 1857) who worked for Dale before emigrating to America and becoming a noted photographer.

Hare cameras are of the highest quality and hand-made, the timber used is usually Spanish mahogany with the screw head slots aligned. Hare sold a range of cameras but is especially noted for the '1882' folding bed model and his tailboard camera of 1878. Typically the edges of the retaining strips holding the lens panel have a flat bevel to them. He probably supplied to the trade.

Hare is listed as the maker of the Ladies' Camera, a combined camera and darkroom, patented by W.A. Brice in 1876 (BP 1050/1876). He also made early examples of the Rowsell's Graphoscope for Rowsell.

Calthorpe St. at this time ran between Gray's Inn Rd and Phoenix Place, Lower Calthorpe ran between Phoenix Place and Farringdon Rd. Later the whole road was known as Calthorpe.

BJP 28/1/1870, p. 44. BJA 1877. BJA 1915, p. 422. Lon. Gaz. 8/2/1867.

Further Information:
  • George Hare
  • Born: 1826 St Saviours York
  • Spouse: Margaret
  • Died: 1913

An early Hare tailboard with rear focusing and a front standard clamped to the baseboard is in Christie's Cat. 11/12/2002 lot 120. 1 Lower Calthorpe address. Dallmeyer lenses: 26473/4.

Harper, N.

Company Name

Nathaniel HarperOptician

Company Address

30 Clarendon St., ManchesterKnown to be here between 1861 and 1881

Harris, Philip

Company Name

Philip Harris & Co. Ltd.

Company Address

144 & 146 Edmund St., Birmingham

Wholesale chemists, in the 1890s they advertised the Cytox Hand camera under their own name.

Hart, Fredk. W.

Company Name

Fredk.W. Hart1863 -Albumen paper manu. and printer

Company Address

52 Canterbury Rd., Kingsland Rd., London1863 -

Heathfield, Dunn & Co.

Company Name

Heathfield, Dunn & Co.1862 -Phot. chemist

Company Address

Princess Sq., London1861 -And at Stratford

Later as Dunn & Co.


Company Name

Wm. Heilbronn1863 - 1866Phot. paper importer

Company Address

433 West Strand, London1863 - 1866

William Heilbronn traded as a photographic paper manufacturer or supplier (probably an importer) at 433 Strand between 1863 and 1866, he is listed as bankrupt in 1867.

He is also listed as a photographer in partnership with Edward Schnadhorst under the name of Schnadhorst & Heilbronn, that partnership was dissolved in 1864.

In 1865 he was for a short time in partnership with John Henry Robert Pike trading as Pike & Heilbronn, photographers. Both of the studios were at 433 Strand.

Lon. Gaz. oct 1864, p. 492. Lon. Gaz. 15/08/1865, P. 4023. Lon. Gaz. 14/5/1867, p. 2809.


Company Name

Heliotype Company Ltd1871 - c.1877
Edwards & Kidd1870 - 1872

Company Address

Broadway House, London1876
Tothill St., London1875
221 Regent St., London1872 - 1874
219 Regent St., London1871
22 Henrietta St., London1870 - 1872
6, 7 & 8 Lincoln Terrace Kilburn, London1872 -Works
6 & 7 Lincoln Terrace Kilburn, London1871Works
6 Lincoln Terrace Kilburn, London1871Works

Ernest Edwards was a photographer working from a studio in Baker Street London, in 1868 he was part of a group that bought the patent rights to Swan's carbon process which was the start of the Autotype company.

By 1870 Edwards had started a printing company - Edwards & Kidd - that specialised in carbon printing. This was dissolved in 1872 when the two partners are given as John William Kidd and Herbert Montague Wright. The firm's address was 22 Henrietta Street, the address of Heliotype, H.M. Wright went on to manage Heliotype.

During the period 1868 to 1870 Edwards must have been developing the Heliotype photo-mechanical printing process.

The process did not prove popular in Britain probably due to competition from the Woodburytype and Collotype processes and the firm closed in 1877. Edwards moved to the US and worked the proces there.

H.M. Wright later ran a printing company with B.J. Edwards in Fleet St.

BJP 22 July 1870, p. 337. BJP 16 Sep 1870, p. 4332

Further Information:
The Carbon process is based on a pigmented gelatine sheet that is sensitive to light. The gelatine sheet forms, when mounted, the final print. In the Heliotype process the gelatine sheet forms a printing matrix for use in a printing press.
  • Ernest Edwards
  • Born: 1837 Bloomsbury
  • 1864: Photographer at 20 Baker St.
  • 1867: Photographer at 20 Baker St.
  • 1869: Photographer in partnership as Edwards & Bult at 20 Baker St.

Hellis & Sons

Company Name

Hellis & SonsRobert Hellis & Sons. Photographer

Company Address

160 High St., Camden Town, London
30 Clapham Rd., London
688 Fulham Rd., London
49 Deptford Bridge, Greenwich, London1900 -
232 Mare St. Hackney, London1898 -
107 Fulham Rd., London1896 -
160 High St. Camden Town., London1891 -
1 Deptford Bridge, London1890 - 1899
63 St Pauls Churchyard, London1890 -
26 Westbourne Grove, London1890 -
213 Regent St., London1889 -
211 Regent St., London1889 - 1891
309 Euston Rd., London1889 -


Company Name

Hepworth Manufacturing Co. Ltd.1904 - 1919
Hepworth & Co.1899 - 1904
C.M. Hepworth1897 - 1898

Company Address

Denman St., Piccadilly Circus, London1910 -
15 - 17 Cecil Ct., London1909 - 1910
17 Cecil Ct., London1902 - 1909
22 Cecil Ct., London1897 - 1898
Hurst Grove. Walton-on-Thames

Hepworth was trading from 22 Cecil Court until March 1898 when he closed his business and went to work for Maguire & Baucus. That arrangement could not have lasted long, by August 1899 he had established Hepworth & Co. and was making films at Walton-on-Thames. The partnership between Cecil Milton Hepworth and Henry Vassar Lawley trading as Hepworth & Co. was dissolved in 1904. Hepworth Manufacturing Co. Ltd. was registered with capital of £4,000 in 1904, the firm was wound up in 1919. C.M. Hepworth was the son of T.C. Hepworth. Hepwix was used as a trade name.

Phot. Dealer Feb/1898, p. 41. Phot. Dealer Aug/1899, p. 36. Phot. Dealer Apr/1900, p. 91, records a visit to the studio. Phot. Dealer Apr/1904, p. 101. Phot. Dealer May/1904, p. 152. Lon. Gaz. 2/5/1919, p. 5562. Hepworth, Came the Dawn. Low, British Film 1896 - 1906.

Hicks, J.J.

Company Name

J.J. Hicks

Company Address

Hatton Gdn, London

Manufactured the Colonel Stewart Panoram camera in 1894, also produced some camera finders and levels around the same time. Scientific instrument makers.

The Photogram 1894, p. 116.

Highley, Samuel

Company Name

Samuel HighleyActive 1863 - 1868Phot. apparatus, magic lantern manu.

Company Address

18 Green St., Leicester Sq., London1863 - 1868


Company Name

Hilger & Watts1948 -
Adam Hilger Ltd1904 - 1948
Adam Hilger

Company Address

75A Camden Rd., London1902 -
204 Stanhope St., London1883 - 1902
192 Tottenham Court Rd., Londonc.1875 - 1883

Adam Hilger came to Britain in 1870 and started work for John Browning at the Minories in London. In 1874 he and his brother Otto formed a partnership making scientific instruments especially spectroscopes. The partnership was cut short in 1897 when Adam died in an accident. From then the firm was run by Otto who died in 1902. Frank Twyman worked at the firm since 1898 and took over following Otto's death.

Adam Hilger Ltd. was incorporated as a limted company in 1904. In 1948 they merged with E R Watts to form Hilger & Watts. H & W became part of the Rank Organisation in 1968.

Hilger produced specialised cameras for scientific use and also the Hillman colour camera.

Phot. Dealer 1898. Lon. Gaz. 4/5/1948, p. 2772.
Twyman, Prism and Lens Making, preface revised 2nd edition.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 58, Issue 4, February 1898, Page 138, [Accessd 2023].

Further Information:
The Science Museum Library and Archives holds extensive records on the company.
  • Adam Hilger
  • Born: 1839 Darmstadt, Germany
  • Spouse: Celine Marguerite Scolastique (marriage took place in Paris)
  • Died: 23 April 1897 at the Old Ship Hotel Brighton
  • 1871: Living in Whitechapel
  • 1881: Philosophical Instrument Maker Employing 8 Men. Living at 192 Tottenham Court Rd.
  • 1891: Living at 204 Stanhope St.

  • Otto Hilger
  • Born: 1850 Darmstadt, Germany
  • Married: Sophie Hass Sep 1883
  • Died: 18 Dec 1902 of 68 Kings Rd. Camden Town
  • 1871: Living in Whitechapel with brother
  • 1883: Naturalization Certificate June 1883
  • 1891: Living in Paisley
  • 1901: Living at 204 Stanhope St.

Hill & Co.

Company Name

Hill & Co.1892 only

Company Address

2 Aldersgate Bldgs., London1892

This partnership between Henry Hill and A.L. Adams was dissolved at the end of 1892. From that time Henry Hill worked from 151 Fentiman Road, probably self-employed. Between 1892 and 1894 four patents were granted to Hill and A.L. Adams.

Lon. Gaz. 10/1/1893.

Hill, G.

Company Name

G. Hill & Son

Company Address

136 Broad St., Birmingham

Camera maker, active in the late 1880s and 1890s.


Company Name

Hinton & Co.

Company Address

152 High Holborn, London1927 - 1931
38 Bedford St., London- 1927Here before 1889

Hinton describe themselves as pharmaceutical and photographic chemists. They produced a range of chemicals under their own brand name. In 1889 they advertised Newman's shutter and a little later a Thornton-Pickard or Kershaw shutter fitted with Newman's timing device, which would indicate that they had some manufacturing capability by that time. In 1892 they advertised a Half-Plate Hand & Stand Camera which looked more original than its name, in 1903 they advertised a bellows camera called the Rex and a panoramic camera, all of these were manufactured by themselves or, more likely, for them. In later years they specialised in accessories, darkroom lamps etc.

In 1901 Frederick Parsons the proprietor of the firm died and was succeeded in the business by his son F.T. Parsons.

Phot. Dealer Apr/1901, p. 87.


Company Name

Wm. Hobcraft1850 - 1872Opticians and phot. artists from 1855
Applied for discharge from bankruptcy in 1865
Wm. Hobcraft Jun.1844 - 1850
Wm. Hobcraft Senior1844 - 1850Instrument maker. At Barbican
Wm. Hobcraft1837 - 1844Instrument maker. At Barbican
Edward Hobcraft1854Phot. artist

Company Address

419 Oxford St., London1852 - 1872Edward H. also at this address for 1854 only
62 Dean St., Soho, London1850 - 1852
14 Gt. Turnstile St., London1845 - 1850
38 Princess St., Leicester Sq., London1844
91 Fleet St., London1856Phot. studio
14 Barbican, London1837 - 1850

Lon. Gaz. 17/1/1865.

Further Information:
  • William Hobcraft Senior
  • Born: 1789 London
  • Spouse: Augusta
  • 1851: Rule and scientific instrument maker, living at 14 Barbican

  • William Hobcraft Junior
  • Born: c. 1820 London
  • Spouse: Eliza
  • 1841: Rule maker, Charterhouse St
  • 1861: Optician employing 9 men
  • 1871: Photographer, living at 419 Oxford St


Company Name

Hockin, Wilson & Co.1872 -
Hockin & Co.1855 - 1872
John Brent Hockin1855 -
Hockin & Wilson1862 -
Hockin, Wilson & Hockin1860 - 1862
Hockin & Wilson1852 - 1860
Charles Hockin & Co.1837 - 1852
Charles Hockin1836
John Brent Hockin & Co.1852 - 1855
Cooke & Hockin- 1852At 289 Strand

Company Address

38 Duke St., Manchester Sq., London1836 -
23 Cullum St., London1853 - 1855
25½ Charles Sq., Hoxton, London1853
1 Bishopsgate, London1843 - 1852
1 Castle Court, Birchin Lane, London1839 - 1842
289 Strand, London1852 - 1855

Hockin were chemists who, in the wet-plate period, supplied photographic materials such as collodion, they also supplied equipment. The partnership between J.B. Hockin, Samuel King Wilson and Charles Hockin, trading as Hockin, Wilson & Hockin, was dissolved in 1866 when Charles H. retired.

Books by John Brent Hockin: How to obtain positive and negative pictures on collodionized glass, and copy the latter upon paper. A short sketch adapted for the Tyro in Photography, 1853. Practical Hints on the Photographic process on glass and paper, 1854. Practical Hints on Photography, its Chemistry and Manipulations, 1860.

Lon. Gaz. 30/1/1852. Lon. Gaz. 27/3/1866. Phot. Journal 18/12/1869.

Further Information:
  • John Brent Hockin
  • Born: 1822 Launceston
  • Died: 25 Nov 1869
A stereo wet-plate camera with a Hockin name plaque is in the Christie's Cat. 19/11/2002 lot 487.


Company Name

J.B. Holden

Company Address

7 Queens Bldgs., Fishergate, Preston
51 Fishergate, Preston

Holden was a leading retailer of the 1950s advertising in the AP.

Holmes Brothers

Company Name

Holmes Brothers

Company Address

3 Railton Mews, Park St., Islington, London1901 - 1904
133 Barnsbury Rd., Londonc. 1897 - 1901
9 Pultney St., Barnsbury, London- c. 1897

Established in 1884 according to advertisements. Merged into Houghtons Ltd in 1904. Patents were in the names of Leonard Holmes, Leonard Edwin Holmes and Herbert Holmes. Holmes Brothers were the manufacturers of the Sanderson.

Holmes Brothers advertised in the photographic press from around 1897, Len Holmes is also listed in the commercial section of street directories from around that time. Addresses associated with the firm are Barnsbury Rd. and Pultney St. which are the addresses of Len Holmes. Presumably the firm comprised Len Holmes and his two sons Leonard Edwin Holmes and Herbert. Previously the firm must have been manufacturing for the trade.

Alfred Henry Holmes and Francis Holmes, brothers of Len Holmes, are described in the 1891 census as photographic cabinet makers, Edward Holmes, another brother, is described as a cabinet maker all lived in the same area of Islington. Francis was part of the Holmes & Watson firm until 1895.

BJA 1899, p.331

Further Information:
Houghton. A camera probably made by Holmes was sold under the Ross label.
  • Leonard Holmes
  • Born: 1847
  • Married: Sarah Gardner 24 Jan 1869
  • Children: Leonard E Holmes; Herbert Holmes; Alice S C Holmes; Gertrude Holmes; Florence Holmes
  • Died: 26 Dec 1919 of Avondale Empress Avenue Woodford. Effects £2,301
  • 1871: Dressing case mkr
  • 1891: Cabinet maker Pultney St.
  • 1898: Camera manufacturer 133 Barnsbury
  • 1901: Phot. apparatus manufacturer
  • 1905: Living at 9 Pultney Street
  • 1911: Living at 39 Empress Avenue, Woodford Green, Essex

  • Leonard Edwin Holmes son of Len Holmes
  • Born: 24 Nov 1872
  • Married: Ellen Elizabeth Bartlett 2 Apr 1897
  • Died: 12 Jan 1931 effects £7,384 to Ellen Elizabeth and Horace Leonard Holmes
  • 1891: Cabinet mkr
  • 1901: Phot. app maker living at 24 Copenhagen St.
  • 1908: Living at 45 Empress Avenue, Woodford Green

  • Herbert Charles Holmes son of Len
  • Born: 1876
  • Married: Elizabeth Julia Loeschman 4 Aug 1900
  • 1891: Cabinet mkr
  • 1908: Living at 47 Empress Avenue, Woodford Green

  • Alfred Henry Holmes Snr. Brother of Len Holmes
  • Born: 1849
  • Died: 1927
  • Married: Esther Lucy Ann Graves
  • 1881: Photographic cabinet maker at 98 Frederick St. Islington
  • 1891: Photographic cabinet maker at 37 Havelock St. Islington
  • 1901: Camera fitter

  • Edward Holmes. Brother of Len Holmes
  • Born:1850
  • Married: Elizabeth McNamara 1871
  • 1871: cab. mkr.
  • 1891: cab. mkr. 1 Offord Terrace Caledonian Rd.

  • Francis Holmes. Brother of Len Holmes
  • Born:1853
  • Spouse: Lucy
  • 1891: Phot cab mkr 35 Danbury St.
  • 1911: Cab mkr 41 Arlington St.

  • Other brothers were George Holmes (1857–) and Frederick Holmes (1860–) who was also at Offord Terrace.

Holmes Brothers (Manchester)

See Leather, Sadler & Holmes.

Holmes & Watson

Company Name

Holmes & Watson

Company Address

35 Danbury St., Islington, Londonc. 1891 - 1895
22a Church St., Islington, London- c. 1891

Advertised as manufacturers in the 1889 BJA. The partnership between Francis Holmes and William Watson was dissolved in August 1895, Watson carried on the business, probably as W. Watson, until August 1896 when he was made bankrupt.

Francis Holmes was the brother of Len Holmes.

Lon. Gaz. 6/9/1895, p. 5043. Lon. Gaz. 21/8/1896, p. 4802.

Further Information:
  • Francis Holmes
  • Born:1853
  • Spouse: Lucy
  • 1891: Phot cab mkr 35 Danbury St.
  • 1911: Cab mkr 41 Arlington St.

Hopkins Bros.

Company Name

Hopkins Bros.

J. and A.G. Hopkins patented a plate changing arrangement (BP 3026/1884) which was sold by them to be fitted to an existing camera or as part of their Simplex camera. They describe themselves as makers of cameras and tripods. The camera was shown at RPS meetings.

J & A.G. Hopkins were also photographers with a studio in Hoddesdon.


Company Name

Hora & Co.1906 -
Tudor T. Hora- 1906

Company Address

9 Geraldine Rd., London1935 -
346 York Rd., Wandsworth, London- 1906

Hora describe themselves as photographic chemists, from around 1898 they sold cameras under their brand name of Fairfield, these were either British made field cameras or German imports. The nature of the company changed following World War I.

Further Information:
  • Tudor Travers Hora
  • Born: 1872 Battersea
  • Died: 28 Mar 1937


Company Name

Horne's Camera MartStill listed in 1939
Horne's Photographic Exchange
G.F. Hornec. 1896 -

Company Address

58 Old Broad St., London1925 -
4B New Broad St., London1896 - 1925
21 St. John's Sq., LondonHere before 1896

George Francis Horne (b. 1861) was issued patents in the 1890s for a simple folding camera and a dark-slide, both of which were incorporated in Horne's Pocket Camera. In 1913 he was issued a patent for a folding magazine camera. Horne's early career was as a wood engraver, his involvement in camera manufacture or retailing started around 1896.

BP 23642/1893, 6868/1894, 13645/1913.

Horne & Thornthwaite

Company Name

Horne & Thornthwaite1893 -
Horne, Thornthwaite & Wood1885 - 1893
Horne & Thornthwaite1854 - 1885
Horne, Thornthwaite & Wood1844 - 1854
Horne, Thornthwaite & Co.1849 - 1853
Horne & Co.- 1849Earliest ref is 1844

Company Address

74 Cheapside, London1885 - 1893E.G. Wood's premises
416 Strand, London WC1876 - c. 1913Occupied in 1860s by L.J. Lavater, phot. manufacturer
3 Holborn Viaduct, London1874 - 1876
122, 123 Newgate St., London1866 - 1874
121, 122 & 123 Newgate St., London1857 - 1866
122 & 123 Newgate St., London1855 - 1857
121, 123 Newgate St., Londonc. 1853 - 1855
123 Newgate St., London1844 - 1853From Sept. 1844
213 Regent St., London1863Photographers

Early advertisements show that H,T & W are the successors to Edward Palmer who was trading from 103 Newgate St. until 1844. W.H. Thornthwaite worked for Palmer, an advertisement in the Athenaeum (21 Sep 1844) indicates that Horne and Wood also worked for or were suppliers to Palmer who was a retailer of scientific and photographic equipment (Talbot bought supplies from him). H,T & W's 1852 catalogue shows them to be selling Daguerreotype and calotype equipment. The company was still trading from 416 Strand in the 1900s.

The Wood in the company title is E.G. Wood who was later in business under his own name in the Cheapside area. Fallon Horne was another founder of the company. He exhibited at several photographic exhibitions and possibly trained as a chemist. W.H. Thornthwaite was an optician and a scientific instrument maker, his son W.H.E Thornthwaite also worked for the firm making scientific instruments including microscopes and telescopes.

It is difficult to make complete sense of the various company names and activities, it is known that Wood manufactured cameras, along with other scientific equipment, and also had a retail outlet under his own name. Oddly though, the early H,T & W catalogues mention equipment as being ' ... Horne & Co's improved ...'. Several scientific artefacts still exist labelled Horne & Co. including a Daguerreotype sensitising box in the Science Museum collection with the address of 121 Newgate Street. The firm might be better understood as loosely connected partnerships and individuals trading from a common building.

The census records indicate that the firm had a reasonably large manufacturing output, in 1851 and 1861 they (W.H. Thornthwaite) state that 26 and 25 men are employed, this probably includes a number working directly for E.G. Wood since he states, elsewhere, that he employs 15 men in 1851 and gives his address as 123 Newgate St. By 1871 the figure for H&T has dropped to 10.

1854 End of the first partnership
The partnership between Horne, Thornthwaite and Wood was dissolved in July 1854 when Wood left the partnership which then became Horne & Thornthwaite, he must have remained associated with the firm and latter formed part of a new iteration of Horne, Thornthwaite & Wood.

Fallon Horne's death is recorded in Thanet in 1858. He was a noted calotypist and member of the Photographic Society (later RPS).

William Ackland was associated with the firm from the mid 1850s until his death in 1895, at some point he became a partner in the firm as the London Gazette notes that the partnership between William Thornthwaite, William Ackland and Francis William Barnes is dissolved as of December 24, 1883. This probably refers to W.H.E. Thornthwaite as in the 1881 census W.H. Thornthwaite describes himself as a retired optician and in the Photographic Dealer of 1898 it notes that W.H.E Thornthwaite joined the board of Gresham Life Assurance around 1878 and 'some time afterwards gave up his professional connection with the optical business'. The same article also states that W.H.E Thornthwaite trained under W.H. Thornthwaite and personally made a wide variety of optical instruments.

The ending of the Thornthwaite, Ackland and Barnes partnership ties-in with a reference that Horne & Thornthwaite was bought by James Martin in 1884 to be managed by his son G.S. Martin. James Martin had an existing connection with H & T; William Ackland remained in charge of the spectacle department of the firm. Martin & Sallnow operated as photographers from 416 Strand from this time. E.G. Wood must have rejoined the firm in some way as the name reverts to H, T & W.

William T. Overstall was apprenticed to E.G. Wood in 1885, he remained there until 1893, he, along with his brother John, then became junior partners in Horne & Thornthwaite.

The Post Office Directory for 1914 shows that 416 Strand was occupied by Dollond the opticians, it is likely that they took over the whole of Horne & Thornthwaite.

In 1851 William Russell Bland (Bland & Long) was working at Horne & Thornthwaite with E G Wood in Newgate street.

A carte de visite in the collection has the address of 213 Regent Street and 121 Newgate Street. Their catalogue offers instructions in photography when equipment is purchased at the purpose-built glasshouse at 121 Newgate.

Books by W.H. Thornthwaite: Photographic Manipulation: containing simple and practical details of the most improved processes of Photogenic Drawing, the Daguerreotype and the Calotype, 1843. Guide to Photography, 1845 (this book was published over several years with changes to the precise title).

Books by William Ackland: How to take Stereoscopic Pictures, including a detailed account of the necessary apparatus, and minute description of a modified collodio-albumen process, 1857. Hints on Fothergill's process, 1858.

BJP 9/5/1884, p. 304 (ref. to Martin). Lon. Gaz. Aug/1854, p. 2370. Lon. Gaz. 13 Feb 1885 p. 643. Phot. Dealer Dec/1898 (ref. to Overstall). Phot. Dealer of Mar/1899, p. 66. Athenaeum 21 Sep 1844. Phot. Journal 30/3/1895, p. 207, obituary William Ackland. Phot. Notes 1/11/1858, p. 252, obituary Fallon Horne.

Further Information:
  • William Henry Thornthwaite
  • Born: 1819/20 Newgate London
  • Spouse: Martha
  • Died: 20 Feb 1894, 14 Highbury Hill effects £11,731
  • Children: William Henry Emilion (b. 1850 or 51), James Fallon (b. 1855), Alice J C, Helen M, Jessie E. He also had four brothers and three half brothers including Alfred T. Thornthwaite described as an optician.
  • 1841: Living 103 Newgate St. (Edward Palmer)
  • 1846: Freedom of the City Admission Papers
  • 1851: States to Employ 26 men
  • 1861: Living at Willow Bridge Rd. London. Philosophical Instrument maker employing 25 men, 5 boys and 3 women
  • 1871: 4 Willow Bridge Rd. Optician employing 10 men and 3 boys. Possibly widower
  • 1881: Retired Optician

  • William Henry Emilion Thornthwaite. Son of William Henry Thornthwaite
  • Born: 1850 London
  • Died: 26 June 1908
  • 1878: Freedom of the City Admission Papers
  • 1881: Optician

  • Fallon Horne
  • Born: 1814 Isle-of-Thanet
  • Died: 9 Oct 1858
  • 1851: Lodger at 99-100 Strand, optician

  • William Ackland
  • Born: 1821 Buckland St Mary, Somerset
  • Spouse: Isabella
  • Died: 30 Mar 1895
  • 1867: Freedom of the City Admission Papers. Living at 7 Dover Terrace Coldharbour Lane Camberwell
  • 1891: Optician. Living in Clapham

  • William Thomas Overstall. Father: John Thomas Overstall. Mother: Catharine Charlotte Hooper
  • Born: 1869
  • Married: Kathleen Maria Louisa Morris 1902
  • Died: 1957
  • 1891: Optician assistant. Living at 24 Alexander Rd. Hornsey with parents
  • 1898: Freedom of the City Admission Papers
  • 1901: Optician, employer. Living at 24 Alexander Rd. Hornsey with parents
  • 1911: Optician, Dealer. Living at 60 Greenham Road, Muswell Hill
  • 1911: Emigrated to Canada

  • John Overstall. Brother of William Thomas Overstall
  • Born: 1867
  • Married: Jessie Morris 1903
  • Died: 1941
  • 1891: Mathematical Instrument Mkr. Living at 24 Alexander Rd. Hornsey with parents
  • 1901: Optician, employer
  • Emigrated to Canada

The Phot. Dealer of Mar/1899, p. 66 has a photograph of W.H.E. Thornthwaite. Early cameras are in - Sotheby Cat. 2/3/1979 lot 224, two-lens stereo camera on a carrying box. Sotheby Cat. 23/10/1985 lot 127, folding sliding box by H&T (121, 122, 123 address, H&T lens 2422; plaque on one of the plate holders: "Regd Horne Thornthwaite & Wood 29 Jan 1847 No. 828"). Christie's Cat. 14/10/1999 lot 301, a Daguerreotype camera by Horne & Co. (123 address on camera, lens no. 2631 by H&T with 121, 122, 123 address). Christie's Cat. 10/11/1988 lot 242, a Powell design single-lens stereo (Regd no. 4143 27/12/58. 121 address). Christie's Cat. 25/4/1974 lot 139, Powell. Christie's Cat. 11/12/2002 lot 136, a folding box (121, 122, 123 address, lens no. 3722).


Company Name

B.W. Horton

Horton started a patent (26197) in 1897 for the Scroll shutter. The company was located in Cold Harbour, Hythe.

BJA 1899, p. 1487. BJA 1901.


For later entries see Houghton-Butcher. See also entry for Dockree, Walter.

Company Name

Houghtons Ltd1904 - 1926
George Houghton & Son Ltd1903 - 1904
George Houghton & Son1874 - 1902
Claudet, Houghton & Sonc. 1866 - 1874
Claudet & Houghton1834 - c. 1866
Houghtons (India) Ltd1911 -

Company Address

88/89 High Holborn, London1898 - 1940WC1 postal district from 1917
89 High Holborn, London- 1898North side between French Horn Yd and Dane St.
Just to the west of modern day Red Lion St
70/78 York St., Glasgow1905 -Poss. originally 74 - 78
6 Government Place, Calcutta
95 Hatton GardenOptical Works

Houghtons grew out of the partnership of Antoine Claudet and George Houghton, trading in imported sheet glass and glass shades. In 1839 Claudet acquired a licence for the Daguerreotype process and, for a short time at least, the firm supplied Daguerreotype materials. When Claudet opened a photographic studio in 1841 Claudet & Houghton's involvement in the Daguerreotype probably ended. During the wet-plate period Houghtons were supplying glass plates, photograph mounts and other items including cameras, in the 1880s the firm supplied dry-plates under their own trade mark.

In 1889 a relatively new company, the Photographic Apparatus & Chemical Co., was acquired. From that time the firm expanded substantially especially in the supply of cameras. In 1894 the stock and goodwill of Amphlett Humphreys & Co. Ltd was acquired. In 1899 the sensitised paper side of the London & Blackfriars Photographic Supply Co., which must have been the old Spicer Brothers operation, was acquired. By the 1900s they were leading wholesalers carrying a complete range of photographic products.

George Houghton & Son Ltd was registered on the 1st January 1903 with capital of £100,000, 20% of the shares were offered to the public.

In 1904 Spratt Brothers, Joseph Levi & Co., Holmes Brothers and Ilex Camera Works joined George Houghton to form Houghtons Ltd. Houghtons Ltd was registered in March 1904 with share capital of £175,000, the directors were: G. Houghton, M.L. Isaacs, E.W. Houghton, L.M. Isaacs, A.S. Spratt and H.J. Spratt. In 1915 the manufacturing companies in the group were separated to form, together with Butcher & Son, Houghton-Butcher Manufacturing Co.

The company merged with Butcher & Son in 1926 to form Houghton-Butcher (Great Britain) Ltd.

George Houghton the chairman of Houghtons and the son of the founder joined the company in 1852. Edgar W. Houghton (grandson of founder) joined in 1887, he succeeded his father to become chairman in 1913, previously he was managing director. Charles E. Houghton (grandson of founder) joined in 1890. A.S. Spratt who worked for the company died in 1908. A photograph of G. Houghton is contained in the Photographic Dealer for June 1902. A photograph of Edgar Houghton is contained in the AP of 1919.

In 1914 the staff employed at the depots numbered 200 and at the works 950.

The Alliance Roll film Camera Co. Ltd, connected with Houghtons, was registered in 1902 with capital of £10,000 and wound up in 1904.

Brand names, sometimes taken from constituent companies, include: Klito (from J. Levi), Victo (G. Houghton), Holborn (G. Houghton) and Tudor (from Spratt Brothers works). The Ensign name as a trade mark was registered in 1902. The Sanderson camera was produced by Houghton and manufactured by Holmes Brothers.

BJA 1909, p. 525. BJA 1914, p. 571. BJA 1945, p. 36. BJA 1912, p. 326, illustration of factory. Lon. Gaz. 20/12/1904. BJP 6/10/1911, p. 768. Phot. Dealer Aug/1899, p. 38, has a article on the new premises in Holborn. Phot. Dealer Jun/1902, p. 147. Phot. Dealer Feb/1903, p. 61. Phot. Dealer Mar/1904, p. 54. Phot. Dealer Apr/1904, p. 99. AP 1919, p. 425. Lon. Gaz. 12/9/1893, p. 5236.

Further Information:
Photographic Apparatus & Chemical Co., Spicer Brothers, Holmes Brothers, Ilex Camera Works (A.C. Jackson), Levi, Joseph, Spratt Brothers, British Photographic Industries.
  • George Houghton (II). Son of the founder
  • Born: 1836 Holborn
  • Spouse: Gertrude
  • Died: 20 July 1913 Uphill Rd Mill Hill, effects £17,835. Beneficiaries: George Edwin H. (photographer) , Edgar William H. and Charles Edward H. (photographic apparatus manufacturer)
  • 1891: 14 Christchurch Rd. Willesden

  • Edgar W Houghton
  • Born: 1870 Hampstead. Son of George Houghton, grandson of founder
  • Spouse: Kate B
  • Children: Edgar S Houghton
  • 1901: Living Willesden

  • Charles E Houghton
  • Born: 1875 Hampstead. Son of George Houghton, grandson of founder
  • Spouse: Amy
  • 1911: Living Woodford

A Kinnear pattern camera by Claudet & Houghton is in Christie's Cat. 19/8/1982 lot 216.


For earlier entries see Houghton and Butcher & Son.

Company Name

Ensign Ltd1930 - 1940
Houghton-Butcher (Great Britain) Ltd1926 - 1930

Houghtons merged with Butcher & Son in 1926 to form Houghton-Butcher (Great Britain) Ltd, this was a sales organisation, manufacturing was carried out by the Houghton-Butcher Mfg Company. In September 1940 the Ensign premises in Holborn were bombed. In October 1940 the company was liquidated, the goodwill and stock was taken over by Johnsons of Hendon. Stanley Houghton and Fred Butcher, directors of Ensign, joined the board of Johnsons. Johnsons formed a company - Houghtons (Holborn) - to carry on the Ensign retail business with premises at 94 High Holborn, but this did not last for long. The BJA 1945 shows a photograph of the 94 & 95 High Holborn address and the 89 Holborn address.

British Photographic Industries (BPI), a holding company, acquired a controlling interest in Houghton, Butcher and other photographic companies in 1915.

AP 13/1/1926, p. 56. Phot. Journal 3/1930, p.108. Year's Photography 1941-1942, p. xxiii. BJA 1945, p. 36.

Houghton-Butcher Manufacturing Co.

For later entries see Ross Ensign.

Company Name

Houghton-Butcher Manufacturing Co.

Formed in January 1915 as the manufacturing company for Houghtons and Butcher & Son. The share capital was £70,000, the directors were E.W. Houghton, W.F. Butcher, F.W. Thompson, F.E. Butcher, I. Joseph, C.E. Houghton, G.A. Spratt and H.J. Spratt. In 1945 H-B Mfg merged with the sales division of Elliott to form Barnet Ensign.

BJA 1916, p. 420.

Houghtons (Holborn)

Company Name

Houghtons (Holborn)

Company Address

94 High Holborn, London

Showroom for Ensign products after Johnsons of Hendon takeover.

PTB May/1941, p. 27.

How, James

For entries see Knight, George.


Company Name

F.W. Hudlass

Company Address

Phoenix Works, 17 Ivy St., St Lukes, Southport
13 Hartwood Road, Southport- 1897

Patented and manufactured magazine cameras, in the Pneu falling plate camera the release of the plate was connected to the shutter release. Also sold magic lantern equipment. Gave up photography in 1900 to concentrate on his motor car business. Felix William Hudlass.

After 1900 the photographic business was run by The Southport Photo Appliances Company at Phoenix Camera Works, Ivy Street, Southport.

Phot. Dealer Mar/1898. Phot. Dealer Oct/1900. BP 23458/1895. BP 4366/1897.

Hughes, H.

Company Name

H. Hughes & SonOr Henry Hughes & Son

Company Address

59 Fenchurch St., London

Retailer, active throughout the 1890s, used the strapline New London Photographic Stores. A twin lens camera called the Xela was advertised.

Hughes, Jabez

For later entries see Werge. See also index entries for Hughes & Mullins as photographers.

Company Name

Hughes & Mullins1866 -
Jabez Hughes1862 - 1866(Ryde)
Jabez Hughes1855 - 1872(London) Or Cornelius Jabez Hughes

Company Address

Regina House, Ryde. Isle of WightThis is the same building as 60 Union St.
60 Union St., Ryde. Isle of Wight1866 -
Royal Victoria Arcade. Ryde. Isle of Wight1862 - 1866Previously occupied by W.G. Lacy
11a Berners St., London1872Between Castle St. and Mortimer St.
379 Oxford St., London1859 - 1872
433 Strand, London1855 - 1861Previously occupied by J.E. Mayall
67 Buchanan St., Glasgowc. 1850 - 1855Monteith Rooms

Hughes worked as an assistant to Mayall in London. Around 1850 he opened a studio in Glasgow and in 1855 took over the Strand premises of Mayall; the Glasgow studio was then run or owned by Werge. In 1862 Hughes moved to Ryde on the Isle of Wight and operated a studio there, the Oxford St. depot was managed by Werge.

Gustav Mullins was in partnership with Jabez Hughes from 1866 and sole proprietor of the Ryde studio on the death of Hughes in 1884 (the Hughes & Mullins name was retained). He was the son of Henry Mullins who worked as a photographer in Jersey and London.

The Ryde studio is described in The Photographic Studios of Europe.

Books by Jabez Hughes: The Principles and Practice of Photography familiarly explained. A manual for beginners, and reference book for expert photographers. Comprising the collodion process, 1860.

Books by Jabez Hughes and John Werge: How to Learn Photography, comprising a course of easy and familiar lessons on the collodion process, printing on plain and albuminised paper; how to produce life size portraits. Dry-plate photography. A manual for beginners, 1860.

Photographic News 15/8/1884, p. 514. B. & P. Heathcote, A Faithful Likeness. BJP 20/3/ 1874 p. 132 the studio is described. Turley, IoW Photographers.

Further Information:
  • Jabez Hughes
  • Born: 1819
  • Died: 11 Aug 1884. Estate £9,402
  • Freemason

A bellows wet-plate camera sold by Hughes (379 Oxford St, Hughes lens 4101) is shown in Christie's Cat. 18/7/1991 lot 390. A Daguerreotype with the Monteith Rooms address was in Christie's Cat. 18/4/1996 lot 19.

Hughes, W.C.

Company Name

W.C. Hughes & Co.1905 -To at least 1938
W.C. Hughesc. 1868 - 1905

Company Address

132 Englefield Rd., Essex Rd., London N1933 -To at least 1938
Brewster House, 82 Mortimer Rd., Kingsland Rd., London N1882 - 1933Sometimes shown as De Beauvois Sq.
151 Hoxton St., London N1879 - 1882This is the address of the family chemist
and druggist business run by
William Parbery Hughes

Opticians and later specialist lantern suppliers. By the 1930s they were supplying condensers and lighting apparatus for projectors.

Hughes started his career as a chemist, druggist and dentist, his father had ran a chemist business in Hoxton Street for several years. Around 1880 he describes himself as an optician and shortly afterwards opened a business off the Kingsland Road specialising in optical goods especially lanterns and later cinematography.

Further Information:
  • William Charles Hughes
  • Born: 1844 Islington. Father: William Parberry Hughes
  • Married: Matilda Isabel Burgess 1868
  • Died: 7 Aug 1908 effects £16,333

Hulme, S.

Company Name

S. Hulme- 1894

Company Address

Exchange Bldgs., New St., Birmingham

Shown as a manufacturer of photographic apparatus and dealers in the early 1890s and before. Taken over by C.S.Baynton in 1894.

BJP 30/3/1894 p. 204.

Hume, Wm.

Company Name

Wm. Hume

Company Address

14, 18 Lothian St., Edinburgh1919 -
14 Lothian St., Edinburgh1907 - 1919
1 Lothian St., Edinburgh- 1907
1 West College St., EdinburghKnown to be here between 1884 - 1888

Specialist manufacturer of enlarging and associated equipment, founded in 1873. Hume was born in 1851.

Further Information:
Torrance, 'Scottish Studio Photographers' has further information.


Company Name

W.H. Humphries & Co.

Company Address

268 Upper St., London1889 - 1892
Elfort Rd., Drayton Park, London1889 - 1892

Opticians, retailers of cameras and magic lantern equipment. Manufactured the Quadrant hand camera and the Drayton Wide-angle camera.

Hunter, R.F.

Company Name

R.F. Hunter Ltd1927 -
Hunters- 1927

Company Address

Celfix House, 51 Gray's Inn Rd., London WC11932 -
40 Doughty St., LondonSometimes shown as 39-40 Doughty St

The firm was formed in the early 1920s, from 1923 they were the agents for Contessa-Nettel, Kindermann and Hauff. They were the agents for Nagel from 1928 and Franke & Heidecke from 1929. The name Celfix comes from the brand name of a cine projection screen, the patent for the screen, BP 345925, was in the name of Robert Forgie Hunter, Arthur Blackburn and Hugo Nagel.

In the 1960s became part of Johnsons of Hendon.

Further Information:
  • Robert Forgie Hunter. Father: William Hunter photographer
  • Born: 1879 Scotland
  • Married: Maude May Clayton 29 Oct 1906. Buxton Derbyshire
  • Married: Ella Louise Hofmann
  • Died: 28 Dec 1954
  • 1906: Photographer
  • 1911: Phot. dealer living in Fairfield Derbyshire
  • 1925: Phot. dealer living in Derbyshire
  • 1939: Phot. dealer living in St Albans

Torrance, 'Scottish Studio Photographers' has further information on William Hunter.

Hunter's Ltd

See also Penrose.

Company Name

Hunter's Ltd1905 - 1927
Hunter & Co.- 1905

Company Address

16 - 18 St. Bride St., London1911 - 1927
26 - 29 Poppin's Court. Fleet St., London1905 - 1911
Eastdown Works Lewisham, London- 1905

Suppliers of printing and process equipment. From 1927 Hunter's became Hunter-Penrose.


Company Name

Hurman Ltd1896 -
F.K. Hurman & Co.- 1896

Company Address

2 St Nicholas Bldgs., Newcastle-on-Tyne
Victoria Sq., Birmingham1901 -
28, 30 Constitution Hill, Birmingham1901
89 Grafton St., Dublin1903 -

Not many cameras from this company are known. An advertisement in the BJA for 1898 claims they are manufacturers and shows a large studio camera. They almost certainly re-badged cameras from other manufacturers and developed a large wholesale/distribution business. An advertisement in 1887 by Chapman lists Hurman as their agents. The partnership between Ernest William Andrew Schumann and Frederick Kossuth Hurman trading as F.K. Hurman & Co. was dissolved in 1896, the firm was then run by Hurman alone. In October 1901 Hurman took over Marlow Bros. Around 1904 Hurman was acquired by Kodak (London) to form the core of Kodak's wholesale business.

F.K. Hurman was elected a member of the RPS in 1894, a photograph of him is contained in the July 1902 issue of the Photographic Dealer.

Lon. Gaz. 31/3/1896, p. 2051. Phot. Dealer Dec/1901, p. xxviii. Phot. Dealer Jan/1902, p. 13. Phot. Dealer Jul/1902, p. 187. Phot. Dealer May/1903, p. 126.

Further Information:
Marlow Bros.


Company Name

H. Husbands & Sonsc. 1893 -
H. Husbands1870 - c. 1893Or Henry Husbands, often styled Husbands' photo Depot
Husbands & Clarkec. 1858 -

Company Address

8 St Augustine's Parade, Bristol1870 -This is on the corner of Denmark St. The address of 1 Denmark St. is sometimes used

Optician and instrument maker especially of microscopes. The date of 1762 is often shown in advertisements, this refers to preceding companies rather than strictly to Husbands. Husbands worked for the instrument maker Thomas Davies King.

Following the death of Henry Husbands in 1900 the firm was run by three of his sons. The partnership between Henry James Husbands, James Wessen Husbands, and Alfred Witchell Husbands was dissolved in 1910.

Lon. Gaz. 1/3/1910, p. 1549. Lon. Gaz. 11/3/1856, p. 1019. The website has an excellent entry for Husbands.

Further Information:
Webster's directory for 1865 gives the address as 7 St Augustine's Parade but still lists Denmark St.




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