Newman and Guardia

The following is a list of Newman and Guardia models. The information is taken mainly from advertisements and shows those cameras that were standard offerings. N&G was a relatively small company and would have made cameras in other sizes to those listed or with different lenses or specifications depending on customer requirements. Some of the lens details may be wrong - the figure engraved on the lens mount may differ from that on the focusing scale and be different again from that advertised.

Some indication of the numbers produced can be estimated from the serial number range shown at the end of an entry.

Camera Models

Camera details and their identification are shown on a separate page together with accessories for cameras and general use. Details of etc are listed separately. Shutter mechanisms are described in a separate section.

The images above show the workshop at Rathbone Place.

Universal

The Universal cameras are essentially large box cameras or, as they were known at the time, Detective Cameras. They were fitted with view-finders as well as the facility to use a rear focusing screen. As the name implies N&G regarded the Universal as an all-round camera equally suited for hand-held use or on a tripod in place of a field camera. Unlike other Detective cameras they were made as precision instruments with a very good shutter and capable of first-class work.

The Special form was equipped with dividing lenses for long-focus work, telephoto lenses could be fitted, the shutter could be replaced by a high-speed model and the front housing could be removed and replaced by another for wide-angle lenses. The plates were held in a removable changing box in a compartment at the rear of the camera, in place of the changing box, dark-slides, roll-film holders and Autochrome slides could be used. When the focusing screen was used the compartment in which it fits did away with the need for a dark cloth.

An index plate at the bottom of the camera carries the setting scales for the shutter and diaphragm, the finger release and a pneumatic release are also located on the plate. Focusing scales were engraved from trials of the particular lens, on Special models there are scales for each lens component. A door covered the whole front of the camera, this opened to allow access for cleaning and so on, it also carried the self-capping blade and a smaller door covering the lens area that opened automatically when the release was pressed. On Special models there is a holder on the inside of the door for the lens component when it is removed. The focusing screen carries a slot to hold the ebonite slide of the changing box when it is removed. Cameras fitted for use with the telephoto attachment have a scale - 2 ½, 3, 4 marked on the bed to match the setting on the attachment. On these models there is a button to release the bellows from the front standard so that the attachment can be fitted.

Universals were not cheap but they were not excessively priced, in 1899 a Special B in the smallest size cost £21.10.0, a few pound cheaper than the equivalent camera from Adams but over twice the price of an ordinary magazine camera such as the Frena.

By the mid 1900s the range of models had diminished and sales were falling. Smaller hand cameras of the folding bed type were the fashion, magazine cameras flourished but at the very cheap end of the market, dedicated amateurs continued to use conventional field cameras or Hand and Stand models like the Sanderson; there was no room for the Universal.

Models

ModelVersion
A
B
C
StereoscopicSingle focus model
Special, 2 focus model
Folding
Half-plateShort Body
Long Body
Special, 2 focus model
Special B2 Focus
3 Focus
High SpeedNormal
Long Extension
De LuxeOpen Back
Closed Back

A

When introduced the model A was called the Standard. It is the simplest model in the range with only single extension.

  • Introduced in 1892.
  • Single extension.
  • N&G, sector type, spring powered with pneumatic regulation, speeded 1/2 - 1/100.
  • Rising front.
  • Two reflecting view-finders.
SizeDate
3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1892 - c. 1903
5" x 4"1892 - c. 1895

Variations
  • Very early models have celluloid focusing screens from 1893/94 glass is used.
  • Early models have no spirit level. In 1895 two circular levels were added. Around 1896 two 'T' levels were used.
  • The spring door covering the lens was automatically opened on pressing the shutter release - 1895.
  • Aluminium parts could be fitted from c. 1898.
  • Aluminium binding could be fitted from c. 1898.
  • Russia leather bellows were available.

Lenses

LensPlate SizeDate
Wray Rapid Rectilinearf8 5 ½"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1892 - c. 1903
Wray Rapid Rectilinearf8 7"5" x 4"1892 - c. 1895
Goerz Double Anastigmatf7.7 5 15/16"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1894 - 1895
Goerz Double Anastigmatf7.7 7"5" x 4"1894 - 1895
Zeiss Anastigmat Series II No. 3f6.3 5 ½"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1894 - 1903
Zeiss Anastigmat Series II No. 4f6.3 6 11/16"5" x 4"1894 - c. 1895
Swift Rapid Rectilinearf8 5 ½"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1895 - 1898
Swift Rapid Rectilinearf8 7"5" x 4"1895 - c. 1895

Accessories
  • Double dark-slides and adapter.
  • Roll-holder, c. 1898 for quarter-plate.
  • Wide-angle front, c. 1895.
  • Celeritas high-speed shutter. Speeded 1/500 - 1/250, c. 1895.
  • Air-tight metal case, c. 1901.
  • Waterproof dust cover, c. 1901.

Serial number prefix
A

B

The model B was similar to the A pattern but had double extension.

  • Introduced in 1892.
  • Double extension.
  • N&G, sector type, spring powered with pneumatic regulation, speeded 1/2 - 1/100.
  • Rise and cross front.
  • Two reflecting view-finders.
SizeDate
3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1892 - c. 1912
5" x 4"1892 - c. 1912
9 x 12 cm1895 - c. 1912
6 ½" x 4 ¾"1903 - c. 1912
5 ½" x 3 ½"1906 - c. 1912
Other sizes to special order.

Variations
  • Very early models have celluloid focusing screens from 1893/94 glass is used.
  • Early models have no spirit level. In 1895 two circular levels were added. Around 1896 two 'T' levels were used.
  • The spring door covering the lens was automatically opened on pressing the shutter release - 1895.
  • Magnalium lens mounts used from 1903.
  • Aluminium parts could be fitted from c. 1898.
  • Aluminium binding could be fitted from c. 1898.
  • Russia leather bellows were available.

Lenses

LensPlate SizeDate
Wray Rapid Rectilinearf8 5 ½"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1892 - c. 1903
Wray Rapid Rectilinearf8 7"5" x 4"1892 - c. 1903
Goerz Double Anastigmatf7.7 5 15/16"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1894 - 1895Not listed between c. 1895 and 1902
Goerz Double Anastigmatf7.7 7"5" x 4"1894 - 1895Not listed between c. 1895 and 1902
Zeiss Anastigmat Series II No. 3f6.3 5 ½"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1894 - 1903
Zeiss Anastigmat Series II No. 4f6.3 6 11/16"5" x 4"1894 - 1903
Swift Rapid Rectilinearf8 5 ½"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1895 - 1898
Swift Rapid Rectilinearf8 7"5" x 4"1895 - 1898
Zeiss UnarAll Sizes1903 - 1905
Zeiss Tessarf6.3All Sizes1903 - c. 1912
Ross HomocentricAll Sizes1903 - c. 1912
Dallmeyer Stigmatic
T.T.H. Cooke
Telephoto Attachment3"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"Dallmeyer optics
Telephoto Attachment4"5" x 4"Dallmeyer optics

Accessories
  • Double dark-slides and adapter.
  • Roll-holder, c. 1898 for quarter-plate, c. 1901 for 5" x 4".
  • Wide-angle front, c. 1895 .
  • Celeritas high-speed shutter. Speeded 1/500 - 1/250, c. 1895.
  • Air-tight metal case, c. 1901.
  • Waterproof dust cover, c. 1901.

Serial number prefix
B

C

The C was similar to the B pattern but had a tilting back.

  • Introduced in 1892.
  • Double extension.
  • N&G, sector type, spring powered with pneumatic regulation, speeded 1/2 - 1/100.
  • Rise and cross front.
  • Tilting back.
  • Two reflecting view-finders.
SizeDate
3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1892 - c. 1901
5" x 4"1892 - c. 1901

Variations
  • Very early models have celluloid focusing screens from 1893/94 glass is used.
  • Early models have no spirit level. In 1895 two circular levels were added. Around 1896 two 'T' levels were used.
  • The spring door covering the lens was automatically opened on pressing the shutter release - 1895.
  • Aluminium parts could be fitted from c. 1898.
  • Aluminium binding could be fitted from c. 1898.
  • Russia leather bellows were available.

Lenses

LensPlate SizeDate
Wray Rapid Rectilinearf8 5 ½"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1892 - c. 1901
Wray Rapid Rectilinearf8 7"5" x 4"1892 - c. 1901
Goerz Double Anastigmatf7.7 5 15/16"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1894 - 1895
Goerz Double Anastigmatf7.7 7"5" x 4"1894 - 1895
Zeiss Anastigmat Series II No. 3f6.3 5 ½"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1894 - 1901
Zeiss Anastigmat Series II No. 4f6.3 6 11/16"5" x 4"1894 - 1901
Swift Rapid Rectilinearf8 5 ½"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1895 - 1898
Swift Rapid Rectilinearf8 7"5" x 4"1895 - 1898
Telephoto Attachment3"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"Dallmeyer optics
Telephoto Attachment4"5" x 4"Dallmeyer optics

Accessories
  • Double dark-slides and adapter.
  • Roll-holder, c. 1898 for quarter-plate, c. 1901 for 5" x 4".
  • Wide-angle front, c. 1895 .
  • Celeritas high-speed shutter. Speeded 1/500 - 1/250, c. 1895.
  • Air-tight metal case, c. 1901.
  • Waterproof dust cover, c. 1901.

Serial number prefix
C

Illustrations:
Holmes, Age of Cameras, p. 88.

Stereoscopic

The Stereoscopic could be used for taking mono photographs by closing, in turn, one of the doors on the camera front. The 6 ½" x 4 ¼" model was also able to be loaded with 24 quarter-plates rather than 12 stereo plates. The septum was fixed on early models, by 1895 it was made removable and the front of the camera could be replaced by one having a half-plate lens.

A Special, 2 focus model, was added in c. 1898.

  • Introduced in 1893.
  • Double extension.
  • N&G, sector type, spring powered with pneumatic regulation, speeded 1/2 - 1/100.
  • Rising front.
  • Spirit level.
SizeDate
6 ½" x 4 ¼"1893
6 ½" x 3 ¼"c. 1905
6 ¾" x 3 ¼"c. 1903

Variations
  • Originally fitted with a fixed septum, removable from 1895.
  • Circular spirit level until c. 1896 then T level.
  • Door covering shutter and lenses hinged on lower edge, later on upper edge.
  • On early models (until 1895) the spring doors covering the lenses were operated manually, they were then automatically opened on pressing the shutter release.

Lenses

LensDate
Wray Rapid Rectilinearf8 5 ½"1893 - c. 1901
Goerz Double Anastigmatf7.7 5 15/16"1894 - c. 1895
Zeiss Anastigmat Series II No. 3f6.3 5 ½"1894 - c. 1901
Swift Rapid Rectilinearf8 5 ½"1895 - c. 1898
Zeiss Satz 2 focif6.3 5". Divided: f12.5 9"1898 - c. 1908Fitted to Special 2 focus model
Ross Homocentricf6.3 5"1903 - c. 1908
Goerz1901 - c. 1903

Accessories
  • Single dark-slides and adapter.
  • Front with Linhof shutter for wide-angle use with one stereo lens.
  • Front with Linhof shutter and a half-plate lens.
  • Front with N&G shutter.
  • Waterproof dust cover.

Serial number prefix
S. SS for Special model.

Folding

Introduced in 1893 but discontinued around 1894. A tailboard at the rear of the camera folds down to focus.

  • Single extension.
  • N&G, sector type, spring powered with pneumatic regulation, speeded 1/2 - 1/100.
  • Circular spirit level.
Size
3 ¼" x 4 ¼"
5" x 4"

Half-plate

This model was available in two forms:

  • Normal body size so that the lens when retracted is at infinity and the camera is ready for use. Introduced in 1895.
  • Short body which had to be pulled out for infinity. Introduced in 1898.

From c. 1901 the Half-plate was made in Special form for 2 focus Zeiss Satz lenses.

  • Double extension.
  • N&G, sector type, spring powered with pneumatic regulation, speeded 1/2 - 1/100.
  • Rise and cross front.
  • Circular spirit levels in 1895, 'T' levels from 1896.
SizeDate
6 ½" x 4 ¾"1895 - c. 1902
6 ½" x 4 ¼"1895 - c. 1902

Lenses

Lens
Zeiss Satz Anastigmat Series II No. 5f6.3 8 ¼"
Zeiss Satz Series VIIa No. 10f6.3 7 ⅞". Divided: 13 ¾"Fitted to Special 2 focus model

Accessories
  • Single slides.
  • Stereoscopic front.
  • Waterproof cover.

Special B

Similar to the Universal B except that the lens is a combinable type. Produced in two versions - 2 focus where the dividing lens has components of equal focal length and 3 focus where the focus is different.

When using the combined or back lens component the changing box is placed towards the front of its compartment. When the 'front' lens is used it replaces the back lens (i.e. fits behind the shutter), and a frame is placed between the changing box and the front of the compartment. This gives extra extension for the longer focus lens.

  • Introduced in 1895.
  • Double extension.
  • N&G, sector type, spring powered with pneumatic regulation, speeded 1/2 - 1/100.
  • Rise and cross front.
  • Circular spirit level 1895, 'T' levels from c. 1896.
ModelSizeDate
3 focus3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1895 - c. 1905
3 focus5" x 4"1895 - c. 1905
3 focus9 x 12 cm1895 - c. 1905
3 focus6 ½" x 4 ¾"1896 - c. 1905
2 focus3 ¼" x 4 ¼"c. 1896 - c. 1914
2 focus5" x 4"c. 1896 - c. 1914
2 focus9 x 12 cmc. 1896 - c. 1914
2 focus6 ½" x 4 ¾"c. 1896 - c. 1914
2 focus5 ½" x 3 ½"1906 - c. 1914
Other sizes to special order.

Variations
  • In 1895 two circular levels were fitted. Around 1896 two 'T' levels were used.
  • Bayonet lens fitting (spring flange) from 1902 with magnalium lens mounts from around the same time.
  • Aluminium parts could be fitted from c. 1898.
  • Aluminium binding could be fitted from c. 1898.
  • Russia leather bellows were available.
  • A model covered in pigskin is illustrated in Holmes, Age of Cameras.
  • On some models the shutter can be removed (for fitting the Celeritas high-speed shutter) and the door at the front of the camera has a strut connecting it to the front housing.

Lenses

Standard lenses were Zeiss Satz-Anastigmats series VIIa, these were renamed Double Protar from 1900. Other lenses could be fitted.
ModelLensFront lensRear lensPlate SizeDate
3 focusf7 5 ¾"f12.5 11 ½"f12.5 9"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1895 - 1898
3 focusf7 7"f12.5 14"f12.5 11 ½"5" x 4"1895 - 1898
3 focusf7 8 ½"f12.5 16 ½"f12.5 14"6 ½" x 4 ¾"1896 - 1898
3 focusf7 5 ¾"f12.5 11 ¼"f12.5 9"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1898 - c. 1905
3 focusf7 7"f12.5 13 ¾"f12.5 11 ¼"5" x 4"1898 - c. 1905
3 focusf7 8 ½"f12.5 16 ¼"f12.5 13 ¾"6 ½" x 4 ¾"1898 - c. 1905
2 focusf6.3 5"f12.5 9"f12.5 9"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"c. 1898
2 focusf6.3 6 ½"f12.5 11 ¼"f12.5 11 ¼"5" x 4"c. 1898
2 focusf6.3 7 ⅞"f12.5 13 ¾"f12.5 13 ¾"6 ½" x 4 ¾"c. 1898

Accessories
  • Double dark-slides and adapter or single slides on half-plate model.
  • Roll-holder. Quarter-plate c. 1898, 5" x 4" c. 1901.
  • Autochrome slide.
  • Wide-angle front.
  • Celeritas high-speed shutter. Speeded 1/500 - 1/250.
  • Air-tight metal case.
  • Waterproof dust cover.

Serial number prefix
SB. Low numbered cameras are in the upper 200 range, high numbers are in the 1900 range. The same serial numbers were shared by all cameras in the Universal range with the letter prefix added to designate the model. This would indicate that serial number 300 was used in 1895 or 96.

High Speed

The High Speed was fitted with faster f3.8 or f4.5 lenses. A focal-plane shutter was fitted in addition to the front sector shutter. A long extension version was available from 1903.

  • Introduced 1899.
  • Rise and cross front.
  • Focal plane shutter speeded 1/200 - 1/1000, 1899. Speeded 1/10 - 1/800, 1905.
  • N&G, sector type, spring powered with pneumatic regulation, speeded 1/2 - 1/100.
SizeDate
3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1899
5" x 4"1899
9 x 12 cm1899
6 ½" x 4 ¾"1905

Variations
  • From 1903 a long extension version was available which could be fitted with a Double Protar lens in addition to the standard fast lens.
  • From 1905 the focal plane shutter was made removable.

Lenses

LensPlate SizeDate
Zeiss Planarf3.8 5 ⅛"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1899 - c. 1907
Zeiss Planarf3.8 6 ¼"5" x 4"1899 - c. 1907
Zeiss Planarf3.86 ½" x 4 ¾"1905 - c. 1907
Zeiss Unar 1a No. 10f4.5 5"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1899 - c. 1907
Zeiss Unarf4.55" x 4"1899 - c. 1907
Zeiss Unarf4.56 ½" x 4 ¾"1905 - c. 1907
Zeiss Tessarf4.53 ¼" x 4 ¼"1907 - c. 1909
Zeiss Tessarf4.55" x 4"1907 - c. 1909
Zeiss Tessarf4.56 ½" x 4 ¾"1907 - c. 1909

Accessories
  • Waterproof dust cover.

Serial number prefix
HS, SHS for model with extra dividing lens. Generally found in the 900 - 1400 range.

De Luxe

The De Luxe was a modernised version of the Universal, it was smaller and lighter than previous models and used many features from the Square Reflector model such as the rotating back, pull-out double extension and screw adjusted rising front. Two models of the De Luxe were produced - an Open Back model where the changing box clipped to the back of the camera and a closed back model where the changing box was contained in an enclosed chamber similar to earlier Universals. The closed back could be fitted with a box for 8 plates plus a focusing screen or a box for 12 plates. The new double extension arrangement made the camera much more compact as did the Open Back arrangement. A new shutter was designed having a higher top speed.

  • Introduced 1905.
  • Double extension.
  • N&G, sector type, spring powered with pneumatic regulation, speeded 1 - 1/200.
  • Rising front.
  • Rotating back.
  • Single view-finder.
  • 'T' levels.
  • Depth-of-field scale.
Size
3 ¼" x 4 ¼"

Lenses

Zeiss Series VIIa Double Protar No. 4f6.3 5". Divided: f12.5 9"

Accessories
  • Changing box.
  • Double dark-slides.
  • Single metal slides with adapter.
  • Roll-holder.
  • Film-pack adapter.
  • Focusing screen.
  • The Open Back version used the same fitting for dark-slides as the Square Reflector.

Serial number prefix
DL. Generally found in the 1600 - 2000 range.

Self-Focusing Reflex

This early reflex camera was based on the body of the Universal series, when introduced it was known as the Self-Focusing Reflex or simply the N&G Reflex. With the introduction of the Square Reflector it became the Long Focus Reflex and remained on sale for a few more years.

The focusing screen was the same size as the plate and so showed a landscape format, for vertical exposures the camera was held as for landscapes to focus and then turned on its side where the picture would be composed with the aid of a view-finder. N&G portrayed this as a benefit in that a revolving back need not be operated by the photographer. The mirror and shutter were inter-linked to prevent the shutter being set without the mirror being lowered, this prevented light reaching the plate. A rear focusing screen could be used for tripod work, the mirror could be locked up in this mode.

  • Introduced 1902.
  • Double extension. Focus to 1 foot.
  • Focal plane shutter speed 1/10 - 1/800 quarter-plate; from 1/8, 5" x 4" and from 1/6, half-plate. Speed variation by varying the slit width
  • Detachable focal plane shutter.
  • Rise and cross front.
  • Auxiliary real image view-finder.
  • 'T' levels.
  • Separate focusing screen.
SizeDate
3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1902
5" x 4"1903
6 ½" x 4 ¾"1903

Lenses

LensPlate Size
Zeiss Double Protar No. 7f6.3 6 ⅜". Divided: f12.5 11 3/16"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"
Zeiss Double Protar No. 10f6.3 8". Divided: f12.5 13 ¾"5" x 4"
Zeiss Double Protar No. 13f6.3 9 ¼". Divided: f12.5 16"6 ½" x 4 ¾"
N&G Reflex TelephotoAll sizes

Accessories
  • Changing box for 12 plates.
  • Double dark-slides.
  • Roll-holder.

Serial number prefix
R or LR

Twin Lens Reflex

ModelVersion
Twin Lens ReflexEarly model
Later model
Special Twin Lens Reflex

Twin Lens Reflex

In 1892 the Twin Lens reflex was advertised with a roller-blind shutter. By 1893 it was fitted with the familiar N&G sector shutter. Very few of the roller-blind model could have been produced, advertisements soon show the improved model with sector shutter. A camera illustrated in Holmes, Age of Cameras is possibly a roller-blind model certainly the front is different to normal models.

  • Introduced in 1892.
  • Double extension.
  • Roller-blind shutter 1892.
  • N&G, sector type, spring powered with pneumatic regulation, speeded 1/2 - 1/100, from c. 1893.
  • Rising front.
SizeDate
3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1892
5" x 4"1893
9 x 12 cm1895

Variations
  • Circular spirit levels added in 1895. 'T' levels from c. 1896.
  • View-finder can be either at the bottom left and top right or top left and top right.
  • The door can be hinged on the left or right.

Lenses

LensPlate SizeDate
Wray Rapid Rectilinearf8 5 ½"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1892 - c. 1903
Wray Rapid Rectilinearf8 7"5" x 4"1893 - c. 1903
Goerz Double Anastigmatf7.7 5 15/16"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1894 - c. 1895
Goerz Double Anastigmatf7.7 7"5" x 4"1894 - c. 1895
Zeiss Anastigmat Series IIf6.3 5 ½"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1894 - c. 1903
Zeiss Anastigmat Series IIf6.3 6 11/16"5" x 4"1894 - c. 1903
Swift Rapid Rectilinearf8 5 ½"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1895 - c. 1898
Swift Rapid Rectilinearf8 7"5" x 4"1895 - c. 1898
Zeiss Tessarf6.33 ¼" x 4 ¼"1903 - c. 1908
Zeiss Tessarf6.35" x 4"1903 - c. 1908

Accessories
  • Celeritas high-speed shutter.
  • Waterproof case.

Serial number prefix
T

Illustrations:
Holmes, Age of Cameras, p. 78. Christie's Cat. 11/12/02, lot 48 shows camera serial number 20, fitted with a sector shutter, the address on the camera is 71 Farringdon Rd.

Special Twin Lens Reflex

Similar to the Twin Lens Reflex but having a 2 focus dividing lenses.

  • Introduced in 1898.
  • Rise and cross front.
  • N&G, sector type, spring powered with pneumatic regulation, speeded 1/2 - 1/100.
SizeDate
3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1898
5" x 4"1898
6 ½" x 4 ¾"1898

Lenses

Standard lenses were Zeiss Satz-Anastigmats series VIIa, these were renamed Double Protar from 1900.
LensPlate SizeDate
Zeiss Satz Series VIIa No. 4f6.3 5". Divided: f12.5 9"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1898 - c. 1908
Zeiss Satz Series VIIa No. 7f6.3 6 ½". Divided: f12.5 11 ¼"5" x 4"1898 - c. 1908
Zeiss Satz Series VIIa No. 10f6.3 7 ⅞". Divided: f12.5 13 ¾"6 ½" x 4 ¾"1898 - c. 1901

Accessories
As for the standard model Twin Lens Reflex.

Serial number prefix
ST

Sibyl

The Sibyl was a range of metal bodied folding cameras introduced in 1906 and remaining in production, with few changes, until around 1940.

Models

ModelVersionModelVersion
OriginalBaby SibylPlate
OrdinaryPlateRoll-film
Roll-filmRangefinder Baby Sibyl
Special SibylEarly plate modelNew Ideal SibylPlate
Later plate model (1910)Roll-film
Roll-filmNew Special SibylPlate
Imperial SibylPlateRoll-film
Roll-filmSibyl Vitesse
Sibyl De LuxeEarly FinderSibyl Excelsior
Late Finder, Plate
Late Finder, Roll-film
Postcard SibylPlate
Roll-film
Stereoscopic SibylPlate
Roll-film

Original

The first model of the Sibyl is characterised by having an un-painted aluminium front with hatching or worm marks, this finish was soon replaced by a black painted finish. Possibly around two dozen of the Original model were produced.

  • Introduced 1906.
  • Single extension.
  • Spring powered sector shutter with pneumatic regulation. Speeded 1/2 - 1/100.
  • Rising front.
  • All metal construction.
  • Rounded ends.
  • Direct-vision view-finder with pointer on case.
  • Focusing scale from 2 yards.
  • No tripod socket.

Size
3 ½" x 2 ½"

Variations
  • Front standard hatching varies.
  • The earliest has only one focusing position, later there were two for plates of FPA.
  • Some models have a rising front scale on the side of the shutter housing, for no obvious reason.
  • The shutter blades on early models are of aluminium and not painted, later they were blackened.
  • On early models the shutter and the shutter setting knob are not marked with the '+' and 'O' symbols.
  • The leather covering has a much more pronounced grain on early models.

Lenses

Cooke Series IIIf6.5 4.4"

Serial number prefix
None. Highest number is in the low 20s.

Ordinary

The Ordinary replaced the Original model, it was at first known as the"Cooke", or "Tessar" and later as the Ordinary, which distinguished it from the newly introduced Special. Originally available in 3 ½" x 2 ½" size, in 1908 a quarter-plate size was added. In 1912 roll-film versions of both sizes were added. Each of these four types was available with either a Cooke, Zeiss Tessar or Ross-Zeiss Tessar. Model numbers were given to the cameras around 1909. The Ordinary models were replaced by the New Special and New Ideal cameras in 1913.

The front panel of the quarter-plate size differs from the 3 ½" x 2 ½". The shutter tensioning lever is placed centrally below the lens, with the release at the lower left hand side. On the 3 ½" x 2 ½" the shutter is set by a lever at the lower left of the front panel with the release button on the left edge of the panel.

  • Introduced 1906.
  • Single extension.
  • Spring powered sector shutter with pneumatic regulation. Speeded 1/2 - 1/100.
  • Rising front.
  • All metal construction.
  • Rounded ends on plate models.
  • Direct-vision view-finder with pointer on case for plate models.
  • Reflecting view-finder fitted to roll-film models.
  • Focusing scale from 2 yards.
  • No tripod socket.
ModelSizeDescriptionLensDate
Cooke3 ½" x 2 ½"Renamed model 6Cooke1906 - 1909
63 ½" x 2 ½"Cooke1909 - 1913
Tessar3 ½" x 2 ½"Renamed model 5Tessar1906 - 1909
53 ½" x 2 ½"Tessar1909 - 1913
Tessar3 ¼" x 4 ¼"Renamed model 3Tessar1908 - 1909
33 ¼" x 4 ¼"Tessar1909 - 1913
43 ¼" x 4 ¼"Cooke1908/09
3a3 ¼" x 4 ¼"No. 3 fitted with a Ross lensRoss-Zeiss Tessar1911 - 1913
5a3 ½" x 2 ½"No. 5 fitted with a Ross lensRoss-Zeiss Tessar1911 - 1913
3b3 ¼" x 4 ¼"Roll-film version of No. 3Tessar1912 - 1913
3c3 ¼" x 4 ¼"Roll-film version of No. 3aRoss-Zeiss Tessar1912 - 1913
4a3 ¼" x 4 ¼"Roll-film version of No. 4Cooke1912 - 1913
163 ½" x 2 ½"Roll-film version of No. 5Tessar1912 - 1913
16b3 ½" x 2 ½"Roll-film version of No. 5aRoss-Zeiss Tessar1912 - 1913
16a3 ½" x 2 ½"Roll-film version of No. 6Cooke1912 - 1913
SizeDate
3 ½" x 2 ½"1906
3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1908

Lenses

LensPlate SizeDate
Cooke Series IIIf6.5 4.4"3 ½" x 2 ½"1906
Zeiss Tessarf6.3 4 ⅜"3 ½" x 2 ½"1906
Zeiss Tessarf6.3 6" or 5 ⅜"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1908
Cookef6.5 5 ½"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1908/09
Ross-Zeiss Tessar No. 3f6.3 112 mm3 ½" x 2 ½"1911
Ross-Zeiss Tessar No. 4f6.3 136 mm3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1911
Dallmeyer Adon3 ¼" x 4 ¼"Telephoto

Accessories
  • Single metal slides.
  • Changing box for 8 plates or 12 cut films, c. 1908.
  • Changing box for 12 plates or 18 cut films c. 1908.
  • Film pack adapter.
  • Focusing screen with hood, c. 1909.
  • Ground glass view-finder with spirit levels.
  • Filters.
  • Antinous release and fitting to camera.
  • Tripod boards.
  • Collapsible lens hood, c. 1910.

Serial number prefix
None on plate models, RF on roll-film models. The lowest number plate model is in the mid 20s, the highest is just over 800 (including Imperial models).

Special Sibyl

Similar to the Ordinary Sibyl but allowing faster lenses to be fitted, f4.5 as against f6.3. The Special was available in quarter-plate or 3 ½" x 2 ½". Roll-film models were introduced in 1912. Zeiss or Ross-Zeiss lenses were fitted for each model. The front panel has the shutter setting knob below the lens and the release on the lower left of the front standard - similar to the quarter-plate Ordinary.

  • Introduced in 1909.
  • Single extension.
  • Spring powered shutter with pneumatic regulation. Speeded 1/2 - 1/100.
  • Rising front.
  • Rounded ends on plate models.
  • All metal construction.
  • Direct-vision view-finder with pointer on case for plate models.
  • Reflecting view-finder fitted to roll-film models.
  • Focusing scale from 2 yards.
  • Depth-of-field scale fitted to quarter-plate models.
ModelSizeDescriptionLensDate
2a3 ¼" x 4 ¼"Celor1909 - c. 1912
2b3 ¼" x 4 ¼"Tessar1909 - c. 1912
73 ½" x 2 ½"Tessar1909 - c. 1912
2c3 ¼" x 4 ¼"Ross-Zeiss Tessar1911
7a3 ½" x 2 ½"Ross-Zeiss Tessar1911
173 ¼" x 4 ¼"Roll-film version of 2bTessar1912
2e3 ¼" x 4 ¼"Roll-film version of 2cRoss-Zeiss Tessar1912
153 ½" x 2 ½"Roll-film version of 7Tessar1912
15a3 ½" x 2 ½"Roll-film version of 7aRoss-Zeiss Tessar1912
Size
3 ½" x 2 ½"
3 ¼" x 4 ¼"

Variations
  • In 1910 the camera was improved by fitting a reflecting finder on the plate models.

Lenses

LensPlate SizeDate
Goerz Celor 1b No. 0f4.8 5"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1909 - c. 1912
Zeiss Tessar 1c No. 15f4.5 5 ½" or 6"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1909 - 1913
Zeiss Tessar 1c No. 13f4.5 4 ½"3 ½" x 2 ½"1909 - 1913
Ross-Zeiss Tessarf4.53 ¼" x 4 ¼"1911 - 1913
Ross-Zeiss Tessarf4.53 ½" x 2 ½"1911 - 1913

Accessories
As for the Ordinary Sibyl.

Serial number prefix
S. Numbers are in the 100 - 400 range.

Imperial Sibyl

A new design of shutter was incorporated using two pivoted blades rather than the sector type used on earlier models. The new shutter was much narrower allowing cross front movement as well as rise. The release is to the left of the housing opposite to the setting lever. The speed setting lever was below the lens and slightly to the left of middle. A folding reflecting finder was fitted. Replaced by the New Ideal Sibyl in 1913.

  • Introduced in 1909.
  • Single extension.
  • N&G two-blade pivoted return, spring powered, pneumatic regulation. Speeded 1/2 - 1/100.
  • Rise and cross front.
  • Rounded ends on plate models.
  • All metal construction.
  • Reflecting view-finder.
  • Focusing scale from 2 yards.
Size
3 ¼" x 4 ¼"
ModelDescriptionLensDate
8Tessar1909 - 1913
9Cooke1909 - 1913
8aRoss-Zeiss Tessar1910 - 1913
14Roll-film version of No. 8Tessar1912 - 1913
14aRoll-film version of No. 8aRoss-Zeiss Tessar1912 - 1913
14bRoll-film version of No. 9Cooke1912 - 1913

Lenses

Tessar IIb No. 4f6.3 5 ¼" or 5 ⅜"
Cooke Series IIIf6.5 5 ½"
Ross-Zeiss Tessarf6.3 5 ⅜"

Accessories
As for Ordinary model.

Serial number prefix
None. Found in the 400 - 800 range.

Sibyl De Luxe

Double extension version of the Sibyl fitted with a convertible lens. The shutter is the same as that fitted to the Imperial. A folding direct-vision finder with a mirror for waist-level use was fitted to early models, later models have the normal folding reflecting finder.

  • Introduced in 1909.
  • Double extension.
  • Convertible lens.
  • N&G two-blade pivoted return, spring powered, pneumatic regulation. Speeded 1 - 1/100.
  • Rise and cross front.
  • Square ends on plate models.
  • All metal construction.
  • Direct-vision view-finder on early models.
  • Reflecting view-finder fitted to later plate and roll-film models.
  • Focusing scale from 2 yards.
  • Depth-of-field scale.
  • Tripod socket with screw.
Size
3 ¼" x 4 ¼"
ModelDescriptionLensDate
1Plate modelProtar1909 - 1914
1aRoll-film version of No. 1Protar1912 - c. 1913
-Plate modelRoss Convertible1913 - c. 1919

Variations
  • Early model finder.
  • Reflecting finder.

Lenses

LensDate
Zeiss Double Protar VIIa No. 4f6.3 5". Divided: f12,5 9"1909 - 1914
Ross Convertiblef6.3 5". Divided: f12,5 9"1913

Accessories
As for Ordinary and New Ideal Sibyl.

Serial number prefix
D. Found in the 100 - 200 range.

Postcard Sibyl

Made for 5 ½" x 3 ½" plates. The shutter housing contains the release button on the left, the shutter setting control is on the top of the shutter housing at the right. The speed selector lever is on the bottom right.

  • Introduced 1911.
  • Single extension.
  • N&G two-blade pivoted return, spring powered, pneumatic regulation. Speeded 1 - 1/100.
  • Rise and cross front.
  • All metal construction.
  • Focusing scale from 2 yards.
  • Reflecting view-finder.
  • Depth-of-field scale.
ModelDescriptionLensDate
10f6.3 6" Zeiss Tessar1911 - 1914
10af6.3 6" Ross-Zeiss Tessar1911 - 1914
11f4.5 6" Zeiss Tessar1911 - 1914
11af4.5 6" Ross-Zeiss Tessar1911 - 1914
10bRoll-film version of No. 10f6.3 6" Zeiss Tessar1912 - 1913
10cRoll-film version of No. 10af6.3 6" Ross-Zeiss Tessar1912 - 1913
11bRoll-film version of No. 11f4.5 6" Zeiss Tessar1912 - 1913
11cRoll-film version of No. 11af4.5 6" Ross-Zeiss Tessar1912 - 1913
-f6.8 6" Ross Homocentric1913 - 1914
-f4.5 6" Ross Xpres1914 - c. 1920

Accessories
  • Single metal slides.
  • Film pack adapter.
  • Changing box for 12 plates.
  • Autochrome dark-slide, c. 1913.
  • Focusing screen with hood.
  • Supplementary direct-vision finder c. 1913.
  • Leather focusing hood for finder c. 1913.
  • Rising front reflecting finder c. 1916.
  • Antinous release with fitting.
  • Filters.
  • Lens hood.

Serial number prefix
PC

Stereoscopic Sibyl

A roll-film version was introduced in 1912, production of plate and roll-film models ended around 1914.

  • Introduced in 1911.
  • Rising front.
  • Folding reflecting finder.
  • Depth-of-field scale.
  • Shutter speeded 1/2 - 1/100.
Size
5 ½" x 3 ½"
ModelDescriptionLens
12f4.5 Zeiss Tessar
12af4.5 Ross-Zeiss Tessar
12bRoll-filmf4.5 Zeiss Tessar
12cRoll-filmf4.5 Ross-Zeiss Tessar

Accessories
As for Post Card model.

Illustrations:
Permutt, Collecting Old Cameras, p. 188. Illustration of an unusual stereo model that was later sold at Christie's.

Baby Sibyl

Smallest of the Sibyl range, made in either plate or roll-film versions. The Baby introduced a change in Sibyl design which was followed by the New Special and New Ideal models.

  • Introduced 1912.
  • Single extension.
  • Spring powered sector shutter with pneumatic regulation. Speeded 1/2 - 1/200.
  • Rise and cross front.
  • Direct-vision view-finder on plate models.
  • Reflecting view-finder on roll-film models.
  • All metal construction.
  • Focusing scale from 2 yards.
Size
4.5 x 6 cm plates
1 11/16" x 2 ⅝" on 127 roll-film

Variations
  • Some early plate models have rise and cross front markings on the front standard.

Lenses

LensDate
Zeiss Tessarf4.5 3"1912 - 1914
Ross-Zeiss Tessarf4.5 3"1912 - 1914
Cooke Series IVf5.6 3"1912 - 1914
Ross Xpresf4.5 3"1914
Cooke Series IIf4.5 3"1914 - 1919
T.T.H. Aviarf4.5 3"1919 - 1922
Dallmeyer Serracf4.5 3"1920
Wray Lustrarf4.5 3"1920
T.T.H. Sibyl-Aviarf4.5 3"1922
Ross Telerosf5.5 6 ¼"1923Telephoto
Dallmeyer Dallonf5.5 5 ¼"1920Telephoto

Accessories
  • Single metal slides.
  • Double dark-slides, 1914.
  • Film pack adapter.
  • Wooden Autochrome slide, 1913.
  • Focusing screen.
  • Composing and focusing hood, c. 1923.
  • Direct-vision finder for side of camera, 1913.
  • Folding reflecting finder for plate model, 1913.
  • Focusing hood for finder, 1913.
  • Cable release with fitting.
  • Folding lens hood.
  • Filters.
  • Tripod boards.

Serial number prefix
B. Numbers range from 1 to the low 1400s. A large proportion (around 450) were produced before World War I.

Rangefinder Baby Sibyl

Coupled rangefinder version of the Baby Sibyl, only made in plate version. There are minor differences in the rangefinder windows between examples. Later examples have a much narrower lower window, the upper, circular, window also differs slightly in size.

  • Introduced 1939.
  • Coupled rangefinder.
  • Single extension.
  • Spring powered sector shutter with pneumatic regulation. Speeded 1/2 - 1/200.
  • Direct-vision view-finder.
  • Rise and cross front.
  • All metal construction.
  • Focusing scale from 2 yards.
Size
4.5 x 6 cm plates

Variations
  • The shape of the rangefinder window varies.

Lenses

Ross Xpresf4.5 3"

Accessories
Same as Baby Sibyl.

Serial number prefix
B. Around 9 examples are known all in the very lower 1400 range.

New Ideal Sibyl

Made in quarter-plate size only the New Ideal replaced the quarter-plate Ordinary, Special and Imperial models. Made in either plate or roll-film versions.

  • Introduced 1913.
  • Single extension.
  • Spring powered sector shutter with pneumatic regulation. Speeded 1/2 - 1/100.
  • Direct-vision or Reflecting view-finder on plate models.
  • Reflecting view-finder on roll-film models.
  • Rise and cross front.
  • All metal construction.
  • Focusing scale from 2 yards.
Size
3 ¼" x 4 ¼" plates
3 ⅛" x 4 7/16" on 118 roll-film

Variations
  • Originally available with either a direct-vision finder or a reflecting finder on the plate model. From c. 1916 the finder was generally a reflecting model.

Lenses

LensDate
Zeiss Tessarf4.5 5 ⅜"1913 - 1914
Zeiss Tessarf6.3 5 ⅜"1913 - 1914
Ross-Zeiss Tessarf4.5 5 ⅜"1913 - 1914
Ross-Zeiss Tessarf6.3 5 ⅜"1913 - 1914
Cooke Series IIIf6.5 5 ⅜"1913 - 1914
Ross Homocentricf6.8 5 ⅜"1913 - 1914
Ross Xpresf4.5 5 ⅜"1914
Cooke Series IIf4.5 5 ⅜"1914 - 1919
T.T.H. Aviarf4.5 5 ¼"1919 - 1922
Dallmeyer Serracf4.5 5.3"1920
Wray Lustrarf4.5 5 ¼"1920
T.T.H. Sibyl-Aviarf4.5 5 ¼"1922
Ross Telecentricf6.8 11"1913 - 1929Telephoto
Ross Telerosf5.5 11"1923Telephoto
Dallmeyer Dallonf7.7 11"1920 - c. 1922Telephoto
Dallmeyer Dallonf6.5 10 ½"1924Telephoto
Dallmeyer Dallonf6.8 12"c. 1922 - 1924Telephoto

Accessories
  • Single metal slides.
  • Double dark-slides, 1914. These were advertised but possibly never made.
  • Film pack adapter.
  • Changing box for 8 plates.
  • Changing box for 12 plates.
  • Roll-film holder, c. 1920.
  • Wooden Autochrome slide, 1913.
  • Hooded focusing screen.
  • Direct-vision finder for side of camera, 1913.
  • Folding reflecting finder for plate model, c. 1916.
  • Composing and focusing hood, c. 1923.
  • Cable release with fitting.
  • Folding lens hood.
  • Filters.
  • Focusing hood for finder, 1913.
  • Tripod boards.

Serial number prefix
E. Numbers are in the 1 to 700 range. Around 100 cameras were produced prior to World War I.

New Special Sibyl

Made in 3 ½" x 2 ½" size only. The New special replaced the smaller size versions of the Ordinary and Special Sibyls. Available in either plate or roll-film versions.

  • Introduced 1913.
  • Single extension.
  • Spring powered sector shutter with pneumatic regulation. Speeded 1/2 - 1/150.
  • Direct-vision or Reflecting view-finder on plate models.
  • Reflecting view-finder on roll-film models.
  • Rise and cross front.
  • All metal construction.
  • Focusing scale from 2 yards.
Size
2 ½" x 3 ½" plates
2 5/16" x 3 11/16" on 120 roll-film

Variations
  • Originally available with either a direct-vision finder or a reflecting finder on the plate model. From c. 1916 the finder was generally a reflecting model.

Lenses

LensDate
Zeiss Tessarf4.5 4 ½"1913 - 1914
Zeiss Tessarf6.3 4 ½"1913 - 1914
Ross-Zeiss Tessarf4.5 4 ½"1913 - 1914
Cooke Series IIIf6.5 4 ½"1913 - 1914
Ross Homocentricf6.8 4 ½"1913 - 1914
Ross Xpresf4.5 4 ½" or 4 ⅜"1914
Cooke Series IIf4.5 4 ½"1914 - 1919
T.T.H. Aviarf4.5 4 ¼"1919 - 1922
Dallmeyer Serracf4.5 4 ½"1920
Wray Lustrarf4.5 4 ¼"1920
T.T.H. Sibyl-Aviarf4.5 4 ¼"1922 - c. 1932
Ross Telecentricf6.8 9"1913 - 1929Telephoto
Ross Telerosf5.5 9"1923Telephoto
Dallmeyer Dallonf7.7 9"1920 - c. 1922Telephoto
Dallmeyer Dallonf6.5 9"1922Telephoto

Accessories
  • Single metal slides.
  • Double dark-slides, 1914.
  • Wooden Autochrome slide, 1913.
  • Film pack adapter.
  • Changing box for 8 plates.
  • Changing box for 12 plates.
  • Roll-film holder, c. 1920.
  • Hooded focusing screen.
  • Composing and focusing hood, c. 1923.
  • Direct-vision finder for side of camera, 1913.
  • Folding reflecting finder for plate model, c. 1916.
  • Focusing hood for finder, 1913.
  • Cable release with fitting.
  • Folding lens hood.
  • Filters.
  • Tripod boards.

Serial number prefix
A. Numbers are in the 1 to 1300 range. Around 200 cameras were produced prior to World War I.

Sibyl Vitesse

The Vitesse was fitted with a re-designed shutter giving a greater speed range and allowing faster lenses to be fitted.

  • Introduced in 1927 or early 1928.
  • Single extension.
  • N&G two-blade pivoted return, spring powered, pneumatic regulation. Speeded 2 - 1/150.
  • Rise and cross front.
  • Folding reflecting finder.
  • Pull-out lens hood.
  • All metal construction.
  • Focusing scale from 2 yards.
Size
2 ½" x 3 ½" plates

Lenses

Ross Xpresf3.5 112 mm
Dallmeyer Dalmacf3.5

Accessories
As for New Special Sibyl

Serial number prefix
V

Sibyl Excelsior

The Excelsior is the roll-film version of the Vitesse.

  • Introduced 1927.
  • Single extension.
  • N&G two-blade pivoted return, spring powered, pneumatic regulation. Speeded 2 - 1/150.
  • Rise and cross front.
  • Folding reflecting finder.
  • Pull-out lens hood.
  • All metal construction.
  • Focusing scale from 2 yards.
  • Easy loading spool chambers automatically lift clear of the camera.
Size
2 ½" x 4 ¼"

Lenses

Ross Xpresf4.5 5 ½"
T.T.H. Sibyl-Aviarf4.5 5 ½"
Dallmeyer Serracf4.5

Serial number prefix
Ex or Exr. Serial numbers generally in the 100 - 200 range.

Square Reflector

Following the Self-Focusing Reflex N&G brought out a Single Lens Reflex of conventional design. The mirror is set separately to the shutter, when the release is pressed the mirror trips and is pulled up by a spring. The mirror is split horizontally and folds as it is raised, allowing shorter focus lenses to be used. The mirror and shutter are inter-linked, the mirror has to be lowered before the shutter can be tensioned or the back rotated. The front lens group was fitted with a bayonet mount, when removed it could be stored in a compartment in the side of the camera. The complete lens fitted into a shallow cup or cone which screwed into the front of the lens board, a quick-change bayonet fitting was available rather than the screw fitting. The lens cup could be replaced by mounts for faster or long-focus lenses. The Square Reflector was an expensive item, dearer than the equivalent Soho.

Models

ModelVersion
Square ReflectorOriginal - early focusing hood with rigid by uprights
Second Version - conventional folding focusing hood
Two-Shutter Reflex de LuxeFocal-plane and front shutters
Front shutter only

Square Reflector

  • Introduced in February 1904.
  • Double extension.
  • Shutter speeded to 1/800. Lower speed is dependent on size: 1/12, 3 ½" x 2 ½"; 1/10, 3 ¼" x 4 ¼"; 1/8, 5" x 4"; 1/6, 6 ½" x 4 ¾". The speed is varied by altering the slit width not the tension.
  • Rotating back.
  • Screw adjustment to rising front.
  • 'T' level.
  • Bayonet mount on front lens. Magnalium mount.
SizeDate
3 ½" x 2 ½"1909
3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1904
5" x 4"1904
6 ½" x 4 ¾"1904

Variants
  • The Original model had the focusing hood held rigid by two metal uprights. These were joined at the top by a cross piece on which could be fitted a binocular eyepiece. The Second version has the more familiar type of hood.
  • On early versions of the Original hood the cross piece is solid, later it is hinged and part of it folds down onto the hood when in use.
  • Early double dark-slides have a tambour shutter.
  • From 1905 Magnalium shutters on the dark-slides were used.
  • From c. 1909 vulcanite shutters on the dark-slides were used.

Lenses

LensPlate SizeDate
Zeiss Double Protarf6.3 5 ½". Divided: f12.5 9 ½"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1904 - c. 1914
Zeiss Double Protar No. 7f6.3 6 ⅜". Divided: f12.5 11 3/16"5" x 4"1904 - c. 1914
Zeiss Double Protar No. 10f6.3 7 ⅞". Divided: f12.5 13 ¾"6 ½" x 4 ¾"1904 - c. 1914
Zeiss Double Protar No. 1f6.3 4 ⅛". Divided: f12.5 7 ¼"3 ½" x 2 ½"1909 - c. 1914
Zeiss Tessar 1cf4.5 4 ¾"3 ½" x 2 ½"c. 1912 - c. 1914
Zeiss Tessar 1cf4.5 6"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"c. 1912 - c. 1914
Zeiss Tessar 1cf4.5 7"5" x 4"c. 1912 - c. 1914
Zeiss Tessar 1cf4.5 8 ¼"6 ½" x 4 ¾"c. 1912 - c. 1914
Ross Convertiblef6.3 4 ⅛"3 ½" x 2 ½"1913 - c. 1916
Ross Convertiblef6.3 5 ½"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1913 - c. 1916
Ross Convertiblef6.3 6 ½"5" x 4"1913 - c. 1916
Ross Convertiblef6.3 8"6 ½" x 4 ¾"1913 - c. 1916
Cooke Series IIaf3.5 5"3 ½" x 2 ½"1913
Cooke Series IIaf3.5 6"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1913
Cooke Series IIf4.5 5" or 4 ⅛"3 ½" x 2 ½"c. 1910
Cooke Series IIf4.5 5 ½"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"c. 1910
Cooke Series IIf4.5 6 ½"5" x 4"c. 1910
Cooke Series IIf4.5 8" or 7 ⅞"6 ½" x 4 ¾"c. 1910
Cooke Series IIIf6.5 5" or 4 ⅛"3 ½" x 2 ½"1913
Cooke Series IIIf6.5 5 ½"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1913
Cooke Series IIIf6.5 7 ½"5" x 4"1913
Cooke Series IIIf6.5 8 ½" or 7 ⅞"6 ½" x 4 ¾"1913
Ross Combinablef5.6 4 ¾". Divided: 8"3 ½" x 2 ½"1914
Ross Combinablef5.6 5 ½". Divided: 9 ½"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1914
Ross Combinablef5.6 6". Divided: 10 ¼"5" x 4"1914
Ross Combinablef5.6 8". Divided: 14 ½"6 ½" x 4 ¾"1914
Ross Xpresf4.5 4 ¾"3 ½" x 2 ½"1914
Ross Xpresf4.5 5 ½"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1914
Ross Xpresf4.5 6 ½"5" x 4"1914
Ross Xpresf4.5 8 ½"6 ½" x 4 ¾"1914
Ross Telecentricf5.4 11"3 ½" x 2 ½"1913
Ross Telecentricf5.4 13"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1913
Ross Telecentricf5.4 13"5" x 4"1913
Ross Telecentricf6.8 11"3 ½" x 2 ½"1913
Ross Telecentricf6.8 13"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1913
Ross Telecentricf6.8 13"5" x 4"1913
Ross Telecentricf6.8 17"6 ½" x 4 ¾"1913
Dallmeyer AdonNot 3 ½" x 2 ½"1904
N&G Reflex TelephotoAll sizes1904
The Protar was also available as a Ross-Zeiss Protar until c. 1914.

Accessories
  • Double dark-slides.
  • Changing box for 12 plates.
  • Roll-holder.
  • Film pack adapter, quarter-plate and 5" x 4" from 1904 , all sizes from c. 1910.
  • Binocular focusing eye-piece for Original model.
  • Single metal slides with adapter, 3 ½" x 2 ½" and 3 ¼" x 4 ¼".
  • Mackenzie-Wishart slide.
  • Supplementary Linhof shutter for long exposures, quarter-plate from c. 1905, all sizes from c. 1910.

Serial number prefix
SR. Numbers are generally in the 1600 to 2300 range, same number series as the Universal.

Illustrations:
Holmes, Age of Cameras, p. 58. Early model hood where the cross piece folds onto the viewing hood.

Two-Shutter Reflex de-Luxe

Similar to the ordinary Square Reflector except the lens is mounted in a between-the-lens N&G shutter. The lens/shutter is contained in a removable box. Either shutter can be used, both are linked to the mirror mechanism and release controls. N&G made front-shutter reflexes experimentally in 1902 and later, in 1910, modified a Square Reflector to include a front shutter. From these the Two-Shutter Reflex was developed commercially. At £45.0.0 it was an expensive camera.

  • Introduced in 1911.
  • Front shutter speeded 1 - 1/64. Focal plane speeded 1/10 - 1/800 4 ¼" x 3 ¼" or 1/8 - 1/800 5" x 4".
Size
3 ¼" x 4 ¼"
5" x 4"

Variations
  • A version with only the front shutter was briefly available in 1911.

Lenses

LensPlate SizeDate
Zeiss Double Protarf6.3 5 ½". Divided: f12.5 9 ½"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"1911 - c. 1914
Zeiss Tessar 1cf4.5 6"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"c. 1911 - c. 1914
Zeiss Double Protar No. 7f6.3 6 ⅜". Divided: f12.5 11 3/16"5" x 4"c. 1912 - c. 1914
Zeiss Tessar 1cf4.5 7"5" x 4"c. 1912 - c. 1914
Ross Telecentricf6.8 11"3 ¼" x 4 ¼"
Ross Telecentricf6.8 12"5" x 4"
From 1914 lenses were the same as for the Square Reflector.

Accessories
As for the Square Reflector.

Serial number prefix
SRDL

Folding Reflex

The Folding Reflex was a very elegant camera and small, if a little heavy, compared to other folding reflexes. The folding arrangement works well though after 80 years the top of the front standard needs to be reminded that it should release the focusing screen when the catch on the folding bed is pressed. Made in two models.

Models

Standard
Fitted with an f4.5 lens. The Standard model has a tilt movement to the lens panel. Introduced in May 1921.

Special
Fitted with an f2.9 or f3.5 lens. The focusing hood of the Special is taller and the body is of different proportions compared to the Standard. The price of the Special model was around £58. Introduced in early 1925.

  • Self-capping focal plane shutter speeded 1/10 - 1/800.
  • Magnifier in hood.
  • Revolving back.
  • The inner panel of the back is removable to attach a changing box or roll-film back.

A small number of cameras were made post-war around 1950.

Size
3 ½" x 2 ½"

Variations
  • Some versions of the Standard have a rising front catch.

Lenses

LensDate
Ross Xpresf4.5 5 ¼"1921
T.T.H. Aviarf4.5 5 ¼"1921 - c. 1932
Dallmeyer Serracf4.5 5 ¼"1921
Dallmeyer Dallonf5.6 10"1921Telephoto
Ross Telerosf5.5 11"1921Telephoto
Dallmeyer Pentacf2.9 5 ½"1925
Ross Xpresf2.9 5 ¾"c. 1925
Ross Xpresf3.5 5 ¾"c. 1925
Dallmeyer Dalmacf3.5 6"c. 1925
T.T.H. Cookef5.8 11"1921 - c. 1925Telephoto

Accessories
  • Double dark-slides.
  • Film pack adapter.
  • Changing box for 12 plates.
  • Roll-film holder.
  • Single Autochrome slide.
  • Antinous release.
  • Pneumatic release with time valve.
  • Folding lens hood.
  • Single metal slides, 1921 - c. 1925.
  • Filters.
  • Extension tubes for telephoto lens.

Serial number prefix
FR. Numbers are in the 1 to 700 range. It appears that the serial numbers do not strictly correspond to the lens dates which may indicate that the bodies were made in small batches and fitted with lenses when ordered. One model is known fitted with a Zeiss Tessar lens. Camera 511 dates to 1927 according to a letter with the camera. The camera was still available new after 1945, a note with one camera says it was bought new in 1951.

Trellis

The Trellis was a very sturdy Hand and Stand camera intended for professional use. It remained on sale for many years but sold in comparatively few numbers. The Early model was illustrated in catalogues for only the first year and was listed as being to special order, it may have amounted to a few trial cameras but was reviewed by the British Journal of Photography.

Early version

  • Introduced in 1910.
  • Focal plane shutter. A front shutter could be supplied in place of the focal plane.
  • Rising front.
  • Tilt front.
  • Drop-bed.
Size
3 ¼" x 4 ¼". Any size to special order.

Trellis

  • Introduced in 1911.
  • Any type of front shutter could be fitted.
  • Optional focal plane shutter speeded 1/8 - 1/800 and later from c. 1913 1/10 - 1/800.
  • Triple extension.
  • Rising front.
  • Tilt front.
  • Drop-bed.
  • Revolving back.
  • Wide-angle rack.
  • Folding reflecting finder fitted to the front standard.
Size
3 ¼" x 4 ¼". Other sizes were made but not advertised.

Lenses

Any lens could be fitted, typically:
LensDate
Zeiss Double Protarf6.3 5". Divided: f12.5 8 ¾" in a Compound shutter1911
Zeiss Tessarf4.5 5 ¼", in a Compound shutter1911
Ross Combinablef5.5 5 ½". Divided: 9 ½" in a N&S Accurate shutter1914
Ross Xpresf4.5 5 ½" in a N&S Accurate shutter1914
Cooke Series IIAf3.5 in a N&S Accurate shutter1914
Cooke Series IIf4.5 in a N&S Accurate shutter1914
Ross Combinablef5.5 6". Divided: 10 ¼" in a N&G Excelsior shutter1929

Accessories
  • Single metal slides with adapter.
  • Double dark-slides.
  • Mackenzie-Wishart slide.
  • Autochrome slide.
  • Changing box for 8 or 12 plates.
  • Film pack adapter.
  • Roll-holder.

Serial number prefix
T. Numbers are in the 100 - 200 range.

Nydia

Models

1893
This is a strut camera with pleated bellows taking double dark-slides, probably similar to the Adams Vesta. The lens was an f8, 5 ½" Wray with Waterhouse or sliding stops. A pneumatically regulated shutter was fitted. Few references to this model exist and few could have been made. Later N&G advertisements state that emphasis was placed on the Universal range and they were unable to produce the Nydia. Only the quarter-plate size was listed.

1900
The Nydia was re-introduced in 1900, the dark-slides had been replaced by a changing box holding eight pates. The shutter was a non self-capping two-blade guillotine type with pneumatic regulation having speeds of 1/2 - 1/100. This model was available in quarter-plate, 5" x 4", and half-plate sizes. The half-plate was probably available a year later than the others. The normal focusing range was to two yards but at least one example, fitted with a convertible Protar, had double extension.

Self-capping Model
The requirement to push in the changing box sheath before setting the shutter must have caused inconvenience and lost exposures. The shutter was redesigned, still using the two-blade guillotine form but making it self-capping. This shutter was fitted around 1902/03. The sheath of the changing box was made removable. A 9 x 12 cm size was added to those previously available. The shutter speed range was still 1/2 - 1/100 on the quarter-plate and 1/2 - 1/64 on the half-plate. Introduced 1902/03.

Stereo
This was produced in very small numbers. The changing box was for 6, 6 ½" x 4 ¼" plates or 12, 3 ¼" x 4 ¼" plates. Single exposures could be taken when loaded with the smaller plates. Models with both old and new style shutters were produced. Introduced c. 1900.

  • Two-blade guillotine, spring powered, pneumatic regulation.
  • Mahogany body, blued metal parts, leather bellows.
  • Reflecting view-finder.
  • Automatic exposure counter on changing box.
  • Tilting back.

Size
3 ¼" x 4 ¼"
5" x 4"
9 x 12 cm
6 ½" x 4 ¾"
6 ½" x 4 ¼"Stereo

Variations
  • Later models usually had magnalium lens mounts.
  • Changing boxes - Early boxes had a non removable ebonite sheath. To make use of the self-capping shutter the sheath was made removable. At around this time the grip of the sheath changed from ebonite to aluminium. Some models have a raised step where the sheath fits into the box. The fittings on the back of the box changed from nickel to black.
  • Changing boxes - Some boxes have a calibrated plate to show the swing back movement.
  • Swing-front - This was fitted to the half-plate size but was optional on the quarter-plate until the mid 1900s when it was fitted as standard. In conjunction with the swing back a 'rising front' movement is achieved. The movement is calibrated so the same setting could be made to the swing back.
  • Levels - These were included in the half-plate size. On the quarter-plate 'T' levels were an option. They were fitted onto the changing box. later, levels became part of the view-finder.
  • Russia Leather bellows - These were recommended for use when in the tropics.

Lenses

Nydia Rapid Rectilinear f8quarter-plate1900 - c. 1902
Beck Rapid Rectilinearquarter-plate1900 - c. 1902
Ross Symmetrical f8quarter-plate, half-plate1900 - c. 1902
Zeiss f6.3 Satz Anastigmatquarter-plate, half-plate1900 -
Aldis f7quarter-plate1903 -
Ross Homocentric f6.3quarter-plate, half-plate, stereo1903 -
Staeble-Werke Anastigmat f6.3quarter-platec. 1911 -
Wray f81900 -
Zeiss Tessar f6.3 6 ¾"5" x 4"

Focal lengths were: quarter-plate - 5 ½"; half-plate 8"; stereo 5 ½". Other lenses would have been fitted to order. Later models had magnalium mounts.

Accessories
  • Changing Box for 8 or 12 plates.
  • Film pack adapter.
  • Plate Adapter.
  • Roll-film Holder.
  • Houghton's Envelope Adapter.
  • Pneumatic Release.
  • Tripod Boards.

Serial number prefix
None. The Self-capping model (c. 1902/03) appeared around serial number 170. Serial numbers on cameras go up to around 1100, boxes to around 1400. The serial numbers are not easy to read, the camera has a number as does the changing box, the number stamped on the changing box is not the serial number of the camera, which is on the inside of the strut. A production run of 1100 cameras seems too high, probably the cameras and boxes were given different numbers but in the same serial number series.

Patents

The following is a list of patents by Newman & Guardia and A.S. Newman, not all relate to N&G cameras.

7156/1886 Pneumatic shutter. Used on the early Newman shutter (fitting in the diaphragm slot of e.g. field cameras).

8329/1886 Changing box where the exposed plate is raised by a crank lever in the bottom of the box.

19274/1890 Shutters, pneumatic regulation. Patent refused.

19480/1890 Shutter. Used on the Adams Hand Camera.

20299/1890 Changing boxes especially the use of sheaths to hold the plates. Found on Newman and Guardia and Adams cameras.

13857/1892 Changing box, use of a pressure plate.

20649/1892 Shutter, pneumatic regulation.

9599/1902 Focal-plane shutter and mirror for a single lens reflex.

19363/1902 Focal-plane shutter and mirror in a single-lens reflex.

25285/1903 Reflex cameras. Used on the Square Reflector.

16857/1905 Folding hand camera especially the view-finder. Used on the Sibyl camera.

8721/1912 Describes the side struts of a folding hand camera. Used in the Sibyl range of cameras. Where the struts join at the top and bottom a short separation piece is introduced. The end struts have a notch to fit over the separation piece. This allowed the struts to fold into a smaller space.

8722/1912 Sector shutter. Used on the Sibyl camera.

158194/1919 Reflex cameras and focal-plane shutters. Used in the Folding Reflex.

158601/1919 Reflex cameras and lens fittings. Used in the Folding Reflex.

183626/1921 Hood for a rear focusing screen.

182237/1922 Tripod that folds into a walking stick. A later patent BP 321007/1929 was for a stick with fold-out platform for the camera.

271330/1926 Shutter, two blade pivoted return type. Used on the Sibyl Vitesse and Excelsior cameras.

290023/1927 Hinged back to a roll-film camera. Used on the Sibyl Excelsior camera.

Further Information:
Two very good series of articles on the Sibyl and Universal by Antony Manthos were published in Photographica World numbers 58 - 63 and 130 - 133.

Camera Models

Universal

Self-Focusing Reflex

Twin Lens Reflex

Sibyl

Square Reflector

Folding Reflex

Trellis

Nydia

Patents


Camera Identification

N&G Accessories

Shutter Mechanisms

Serial Numbers

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